Abstract

Chromatic contrast thresholds for spatially varying patterns of various spatial frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 cycles per degree) were measured for ten older (65–77 yr of age) and ten younger (18–30 yr of age) observers. The stimuli were Gabor patches modulated along S-varying or (L – M)-varying chromatic axes. Thresholds were determined for two sets of stimuli. For one set of stimuli, the mean chromaticity and luminance were equated at the cornea for all observers. The second set of stimuli was corrected for ocular media density differences to equate stimulation of each of the three cone types at the retina for each individual. Chromatic contrast thresholds were higher for older observers for all stimuli tested. The magnitude of this difference showed little dependence on spatial frequency. When stimuli were equated at the cornea, this difference was greater for S-varying stimuli. When stimuli were equated at the retina, the age-related difference in thresholds for S-varying stimuli was reduced. Both optical and neural factors contribute to these age-related losses in spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation, and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vision 2, 438–450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Okajima, M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments based on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390–1395 (2001).

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

1996 (2)

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Williams, N. Sekiguchi, D. Brainard, “Color, contrast sensitivity, and the cone mosaic,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9770–9777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, D. S. Pfoff, “Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Ophthalmology 96, 1552–1558 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, “Sensation luminance: a new name to distinguish CIE luminance from luminance dependent on an individual’s spectral sensitivity,” Vision Res. 28, 455–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

R. A. Weale, “Senescent vision: is it all the fault of the lens?” Eye 1, 217–221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

1984 (2)

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983 (3)

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742–750 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kelly, “Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983–990 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 717–727 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1958 (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The scotopic visibility function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62B, 321–334 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

Albrecht, D. G.

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 717–727 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. S.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vision Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Barbero, S.

Barr, S. A. N.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 345–352.

Bieber, M. L.

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Boynton, R. M.

Bradley, A.

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D.

D. Williams, N. Sekiguchi, D. Brainard, “Color, contrast sensitivity, and the cone mosaic,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9770–9777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “Color contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, 2nd ed., P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 563–579.

Burns, S. A.

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390–1395 (2001).

Burr, D. C.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, K. B.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottaris, N. P.

Coulter, E.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vision Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “The scotopic visibility function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62B, 321–334 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation, and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vision 2, 438–450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, K.

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Seeing, Vol. 5 of Handbook of Perception, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Freidman, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

K. K. De Valois, “The role of color in spatial vision,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa, J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2004), pp. 924–935.

De Valois, R. L.

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Seeing, Vol. 5 of Handbook of Perception, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Freidman, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

Delahunt, P. B.

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Elliott, D. B.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Frederick, C. M.

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Guirao, A.

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 345–352.

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

Hardy, J. L.

P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, K. Okajima, J. S. Werner, “Senescence of spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity. II. Matching under natural viewing conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 60–67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Harvey, L. O.

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hewlett, S. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 345–352.

Jimenez-Alfaro, I.

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser, “Sensation luminance: a new name to distinguish CIE luminance from luminance dependent on an individual’s spectral sensitivity,” Vision Res. 28, 455–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Kelly, D. H.

Keppel, G.

G. Keppel, S. Zedeck, Data Analysis for Research Designs (Freeman, New York, 1989).

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Liang, J.

Lutze, M.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Marcos, S.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

McLellan, J. S.

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390–1395 (2001).

Morrone, M. C.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

Navarro, R.

Okajima, K.

P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, K. Okajima, J. S. Werner, “Senescence of spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity. II. Matching under natural viewing conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 60–67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okajima, M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments based on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

Owsley, C.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, W.

A. Werner, G. Schwarz, W. Paulus, “Ageing and chromatic contrast sensitivity,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XII, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 235–241.

Peleška, M.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, D. G.

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfoff, D. S.

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, D. S. Pfoff, “Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Ophthalmology 96, 1552–1558 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porciatti, V.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, I.

Redondo, M.

Schefrin, B. E.

Schwarz, G.

A. Werner, G. Schwarz, W. Paulus, “Ageing and chromatic contrast sensitivity,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XII, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 235–241.

Sekiguchi, N.

D. Williams, N. Sekiguchi, D. Brainard, “Color, contrast sensitivity, and the cone mosaic,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9770–9777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekuler, R.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinomori, K.

Siemsen, D.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloane, M. E.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

Spillmann, L.

J. S. Werner, L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steele, V. G.

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, D. S. Pfoff, “Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Ophthalmology 96, 1552–1558 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steen, R.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Switkes, E.

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamura, Y.

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

Takase, M.

K. Okajima, M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments based on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thorell, L. G.

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tregear, S. J.

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, N.

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

van Norren, D.

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vaško, A.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 717–727 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

Watanabe, K.

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Senescent vision: is it all the fault of the lens?” Eye 1, 217–221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, A.

A. Werner, G. Schwarz, W. Paulus, “Ageing and chromatic contrast sensitivity,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XII, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 235–241.

Werner, J. S.

P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, K. Okajima, J. S. Werner, “Senescence of spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity. II. Matching under natural viewing conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 60–67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, B. E. Schefrin, “Senescence of foveal and parafoveal cone sensitivities and their relations to macular pigment density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, D. S. Pfoff, “Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Ophthalmology 96, 1552–1558 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Westheimer, G.

Whitaker, D.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wild, J. M.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

D. Williams, N. Sekiguchi, D. Brainard, “Color, contrast sensitivity, and the cone mosaic,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9770–9777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yamashita, K.

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

Zedeck, S.

G. Keppel, S. Zedeck, Data Analysis for Research Designs (Freeman, New York, 1989).

Zlatkova, M. B.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vision Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (1)

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 717–727 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (3)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in the color appearance of broadband surfaces,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 380–389 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eye (1)

R. A. Weale, “Senescent vision: is it all the fault of the lens?” Eye 1, 217–221 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. S. Werner, L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 397–406 (1998).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390–1395 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (10)

J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, B. E. Schefrin, “Senescence of foveal and parafoveal cone sensitivities and their relations to macular pigment density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, K. Okajima, J. S. Werner, “Senescence of spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity. II. Matching under natural viewing conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 60–67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, I. Jimenez-Alfaro, “Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1841–1851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Cottaris, “Artifacts in spatiochromatic stimuli due to variations in preretinal absorption and axial chromatic aberration: implications for color physiology,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1694–1713 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye’s optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1417–1424 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, P. Artal, “Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1697–1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

J. Vision (1)

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation, and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vision 2, 438–450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, D. S. Pfoff, “Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Ophthalmology 96, 1552–1558 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Okajima, M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments based on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (2)

D. Whitaker, R. Steen, D. B. Elliott, “Light scatter in the normal young, elderly, and cataractous eye demonstrates little wavelength dependency,” Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 963–968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. Williams, N. Sekiguchi, D. Brainard, “Color, contrast sensitivity, and the cone mosaic,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9770–9777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The scotopic visibility function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62B, 321–334 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (11)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vision Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–699 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, “Sensation luminance: a new name to distinguish CIE luminance from luminance dependent on an individual’s spectral sensitivity,” Vision Res. 28, 455–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

D. H. Brainard, “Color contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, 2nd ed., P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 563–579.

K. Okajima, K. Yamashita, Y. Takamura, K. Watanabe, N. Tsuchiya, “Color perception of the elderly: experiments and simulations,” in Proceedings of the International Conference for Universal Design (International Association for Universal Design, Yokohama, Japan, 2002), pp. 238–244.

G. Keppel, S. Zedeck, Data Analysis for Research Designs (Freeman, New York, 1989).

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Seeing, Vol. 5 of Handbook of Perception, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Freidman, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

K. K. De Valois, “The role of color in spatial vision,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa, J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2004), pp. 924–935.

A. Werner, G. Schwarz, W. Paulus, “Ageing and chromatic contrast sensitivity,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XII, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 235–241.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 345–352.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The upper panels show relative scotopic sensitivity functions for two observers, an 18 yr old (left) and a 76 yr old (right). The solid curves represent the CIE V(λ) function, while the dashed curves represent scotopic sensitivity functions individualized for each subject, VI(λ). The lower panels show the corresponding estimated ocular media optical density (OD) functions for the two subjects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimated ocular media OD at 400 nm for the 20 phakic subjects as a function of age. Solid circles represent data from individual subjects. The dashed bilinear curve shows the predicted values from the model of Pokorny et al.26

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log relative sensitivity (energy) of the three cone fundamentals as a function of wavelength for standard Smith–Pokorny29,30 fundamentals (solid curves) and individualized cone fundamentals adjusted for ocular media OD (dashed curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromatic angle corresponding to the average tritan-pairs settings. Y-S represents the data from younger subjects in the standard fundamentals condition; O-S, older subjects, standard fundamentals; Y-A, younger subjects, individually adjusted fundamentals; and O-A, older subjects, individually adjusted fundamentals. Error bars represent ±1 standard error of the mean (SEM).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average chromatic contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency for (L – M)-varying stimuli. Sensitivities are equal to inverse threshold contrast (normalized cone contrast vector length). Black symbols and lines show average data from younger subjects, and gray symbols and lines show average data from older subjects. Solid lines and solid circles show data from the standard fundamentals conditions, and dashed lines and solid squares show data from the individually adjusted fundamentals conditions. Error bars represent ±1 SEM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average chromatic contrast sensitivity for S-varying stimuli. Sensitivities are equal to inverse contrast threshold (normalized cone contrast vector length). Black symbols and lines show average data from younger subjects, and gray symbols and lines show average data from older subjects. Solid lines and solid circles show data from the standard fundamentals conditions, and dashed lines and solid squares show data from the individually adjusted fundamentals conditions. Error bars represent ±1 SEM. The downward-pointing arrows indicate conditions for which one or more of the older observers were unable to detect the patterns at any contrast.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chromatic contrast sensitivity for all 20 subjects as a function of chronological age for (L – M)-varying stimuli. Solid squares represent data from individually adjusted fundamentals conditions, and open circles represent data from standard fundamentals conditions. Data from the four spatial frequencies are plotted in different panels. The dashed line across the bottom of each panel represents a sensitivity corresponding to the maximum contrast achievable for these stimuli under these conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Chromatic contrast sensitivity for all 20 subjects as a function of chronological age for S-varying stimuli. Solid squares represent data from individually adjusted fundamentals conditions, and open circles represent data from standard fundamentals conditions. The dashed line across the bottom of each panel represents a sensitivity corresponding to the maximum contrast achievable for these stimuli under these conditions.

Equations (6)

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log10 VI(λ)=c+log10 V(λ)+ODS(λ)-ODI(λ),
LS(λ)MS(λ)SS(λ)=-0.155160.54307-0.3287-0.155160.456920.03287000.00801×x¯78(λ)y¯78(λ)z¯78(λ),
log10 LI(λ)=log10 LS(λ)+ODS(λ)-ODI(λ), log10 MI(λ)=log10 MS(λ)+ODS(λ)-ODI(λ), log10 SI(λ)=log10 SS(λ)+ODS(λ)-ODI(λ),
Ci=(Eimax-Eimin)/(Eimax+Eimin),
C¯=[(CL2+CM2+CS2)/3]1/2.
P(L-M)=cos θ,  P(S)=sin θ,

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