Abstract

Fender and Julesz [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819 ( 1967)] moved pairs of retinally stabilized images across the temporalward visual fields and found significant differences between the disparities that elicited fusion and the disparities at which fusion was lost. They recognized this phenomenon as an example of hysteresis. In the work reported in this paper, binocular retinally stabilized images of vertical dark bars on white backgrounds were moved into horizontal disparity in both the nasalward and the temporalward directions. The limits of Panum’s fusional area and the hysteresis demonstrated by these limits were measured for two observers. The following results were obtained: (1) the nasalward limits of Panum’s fusional area and the hysteresis demonstrated by the nasalward limits do not differ significantly from the temporalward limits and the hysteresis demonstrated by the temporalward limits; (2) the limits of Panum’s fusional area and the hysteresis demonstrated by these limits are not significantly different if one stimulus moves across each retina or if one stimulus is held still on one retina and the other stimulus is moved across the other retina; (3) the use of nonstabilized cross hairs for fixation decreases the hysteresis; and (4) the full hysteresis effect can be elicited with a rate of change of disparity of 2 arcmin/sec.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision: Part 1. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. 128, 371–394 (1838).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. W. Dove, “Über Stereoskopie,” Ann. Phys. Ser. 2 110, 494–498 (1860).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. L. Panum, Physiologische Untersuchungen über das Sehen mit zwei Augen (Schwerssche Buchhandlung, Kiel, 1858).
  4. D. Fender, B. Julesz, “Extension of Panum’s fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819–830 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. T. Hyson, B. Julesz, D. H. Fender, “Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1665–1673 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. J. Erkelens, H. Collewijn, “Eye movements in relation to loss and regaining of fusion of disjunctively moving random-dot stereograms,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 181–188 (1985).
  7. T. P. Piantanida, “Stereo hysteresis revisited,” Vision Res. 26, 431–437 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. E. Kertesz, “Effect of stimulus size on fusion and vergence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 289–293 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Kulikowski, “Limit of single vision in stereopsis depends on contour sharpness,” Nature 276, 126–127 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Schor, C. W. Tyler, “Spatio-temporal properties of Panum’s fusional area,” Vision Res. 21, 683–692 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. S. Gilbert, D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. St-Cyr, D. H. Fender, “Nonlinearities of the human oculomotor system: time delays,” Vision Res. 9, 1491–1503 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950).
  15. A. L. Duwaer, G. van den Brink, “What is the diplopia threshold?” Percept. Psychophys. 29, 295–309 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

T. P. Piantanida, “Stereo hysteresis revisited,” Vision Res. 26, 431–437 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. J. Erkelens, H. Collewijn, “Eye movements in relation to loss and regaining of fusion of disjunctively moving random-dot stereograms,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 181–188 (1985).

1984 (1)

C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1981 (3)

A. L. Duwaer, G. van den Brink, “What is the diplopia threshold?” Percept. Psychophys. 29, 295–309 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Kertesz, “Effect of stimulus size on fusion and vergence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 289–293 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, C. W. Tyler, “Spatio-temporal properties of Panum’s fusional area,” Vision Res. 21, 683–692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. J. Kulikowski, “Limit of single vision in stereopsis depends on contour sharpness,” Nature 276, 126–127 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

D. S. Gilbert, D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. J. St-Cyr, D. H. Fender, “Nonlinearities of the human oculomotor system: time delays,” Vision Res. 9, 1491–1503 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1860 (1)

H. W. Dove, “Über Stereoskopie,” Ann. Phys. Ser. 2 110, 494–498 (1860).
[CrossRef]

1838 (1)

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision: Part 1. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. 128, 371–394 (1838).
[CrossRef]

Collewijn, H.

C. J. Erkelens, H. Collewijn, “Eye movements in relation to loss and regaining of fusion of disjunctively moving random-dot stereograms,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 181–188 (1985).

Dove, H. W.

H. W. Dove, “Über Stereoskopie,” Ann. Phys. Ser. 2 110, 494–498 (1860).
[CrossRef]

Duwaer, A. L.

A. L. Duwaer, G. van den Brink, “What is the diplopia threshold?” Percept. Psychophys. 29, 295–309 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erkelens, C. J.

C. J. Erkelens, H. Collewijn, “Eye movements in relation to loss and regaining of fusion of disjunctively moving random-dot stereograms,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 181–188 (1985).

Fender, D.

Fender, D. H.

M. T. Hyson, B. Julesz, D. H. Fender, “Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1665–1673 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. St-Cyr, D. H. Fender, “Nonlinearities of the human oculomotor system: time delays,” Vision Res. 9, 1491–1503 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Gilbert, D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, D. S.

D. S. Gilbert, D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hyson, M. T.

Julesz, B.

Kertesz, A. E.

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, “Limit of single vision in stereopsis depends on contour sharpness,” Nature 276, 126–127 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, J.

C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950).

Panum, P. L.

P. L. Panum, Physiologische Untersuchungen über das Sehen mit zwei Augen (Schwerssche Buchhandlung, Kiel, 1858).

Piantanida, T. P.

T. P. Piantanida, “Stereo hysteresis revisited,” Vision Res. 26, 431–437 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, C.

C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, C. M.

C. M. Schor, C. W. Tyler, “Spatio-temporal properties of Panum’s fusional area,” Vision Res. 21, 683–692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

St-Cyr, G. J.

G. J. St-Cyr, D. H. Fender, “Nonlinearities of the human oculomotor system: time delays,” Vision Res. 9, 1491–1503 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, C. W.

C. M. Schor, C. W. Tyler, “Spatio-temporal properties of Panum’s fusional area,” Vision Res. 21, 683–692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

van den Brink, G.

A. L. Duwaer, G. van den Brink, “What is the diplopia threshold?” Percept. Psychophys. 29, 295–309 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheatstone, C.

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision: Part 1. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. 128, 371–394 (1838).
[CrossRef]

Wood, I.

C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. Ser. 2 (1)

H. W. Dove, “Über Stereoskopie,” Ann. Phys. Ser. 2 110, 494–498 (1860).
[CrossRef]

Human Neurobiol. (1)

C. J. Erkelens, H. Collewijn, “Eye movements in relation to loss and regaining of fusion of disjunctively moving random-dot stereograms,” Human Neurobiol. 4, 181–188 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Nature (1)

J. J. Kulikowski, “Limit of single vision in stereopsis depends on contour sharpness,” Nature 276, 126–127 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

D. S. Gilbert, D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

A. L. Duwaer, G. van den Brink, “What is the diplopia threshold?” Percept. Psychophys. 29, 295–309 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. (1)

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision: Part 1. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. 128, 371–394 (1838).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (4)

G. J. St-Cyr, D. H. Fender, “Nonlinearities of the human oculomotor system: time delays,” Vision Res. 9, 1491–1503 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Binocular sensory fusion is limited by spatial resolution,” Vision Res. 24, 661–665 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, C. W. Tyler, “Spatio-temporal properties of Panum’s fusional area,” Vision Res. 21, 683–692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Piantanida, “Stereo hysteresis revisited,” Vision Res. 26, 431–437 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. L. Panum, Physiologische Untersuchungen über das Sehen mit zwei Augen (Schwerssche Buchhandlung, Kiel, 1858).

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fusion and hysteresis for stabilized images of vertical bars as measured by Fender and Julesz.4 Temp., temporalward. Horizontal bars represent 1 standard deviation. Fixation reticules were not used. In this and the following figures, we assume that the perceived disparity is zero during fusion and that it is veridical in the absence of fusion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fusion and hysteresis for stabilized images of vertical bars, temporalward and nasalward ranges. Temp., temporalward; Nasal., nasalward. Horizontal bars represent 1 standard error of mean. Fixation reticules were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2, but reticules were not used. The right-hand side of each of these diagrams is comparable with Fig. 1, except for standard deviation versus standard error.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Binocular Disparities for Fusion and Hysteresis in Stabilized Vision

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