Abstract

In this paper, a general methodology to study rigorous discontinuities in open waveguides is presented. It relies on a full vector description given by Maxwell’s equations in the framework of the finite element method. The discontinuities are not necessarily small perturbations of the initial waveguide and can be very general, such as plasmonic inclusions of arbitrary shapes. The leaky modes of the invariant structure are first computed and then injected as incident fields in the full structure with obstacles using a scattered field approach. The resulting scattered field is finally projected on the modes of the invariant structure making use of their bi-orthogonality. The energy balance is discussed. Finally, the modes of open waveguides periodically structured along the propagation direction are computed. The relevant complex propagation constants are compared to the transmission obtained for a finite number of identical cells. The relevance and complementarity of the two approaches are highlighted on a numerical example encountered in infrared sensing. Open source models allowing us to retrieve most of the results of this paper are provided.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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