Abstract

The color and texture of human skin provide useful information in evaluating a person’s health, emotion, attractiveness, and so on. Whereas the appearance of skin is a product of optical properties originating from its own biophysical substrates, recent psychophysical studies of surface material perception indicate a possibility that humans can perceive skin conditions from relatively simple image features such as texture statistics. The present study investigated the structure of multidimensional perceptual rating data for 289 female skin images and analyzed diagnostic low-level image statistics. We found that various skin appearances can be summarized into two dimensions, pleasantness and glossiness, and either dimension is well correlated with a small set of subband luminance and color statistics. We confirmed that manipulations of these critical image statistics significantly alter the appearance of skin in the expected direction. The results support a notion that humans perceive skin properties essentially based on two cardinal dimensions as predicted by simple image statistics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Fink and P. J. Matts, “The effects of skin color distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 493–498 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Motoyoshi, “Highlight-shading relationship as a cue for the perception of translucent and transparent materials,” J. Vis. 10(9):6, 1–11 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. I. Motoyoshi and H. Matoba, “Variability in constancy of the perceived surface reflectance across different illumination statistics,” Vision Res. 53, 30–39 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Giesel and Q. Zaidi, “Frequency-based heuristics for material perception,” J. Vis. 13(14):7, 1–19 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. W. Fleming, “Visual perception of materials and their properties,” Vision Res. 94, 62–75 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Kim and B. L. Anderson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 10(9):3, 1–17 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. J. Marlow and B. L. Anderson, “Generative constraints on image cues for perceived gloss,” J. Vis. 13(14):2, 1–23 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. P. Kaiser and M. R. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, 1996).
  27. K. Gegenfurtner and L. Sharpe, Color Vision: From Genes to Perception (Cambridge University, 2001).
  28. K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Sawayama and E. H. Adelson, “Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics,” J. Vis. 17(5):7, 1–24 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Sawayama and E. H. Adelson, “Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics,” J. Vis. 17(5):7, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. W. Fleming, “Visual perception of materials and their properties,” Vision Res. 94, 62–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Giesel and Q. Zaidi, “Frequency-based heuristics for material perception,” J. Vis. 13(14):7, 1–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Marlow and B. L. Anderson, “Generative constraints on image cues for perceived gloss,” J. Vis. 13(14):2, 1–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi and H. Matoba, “Variability in constancy of the perceived surface reflectance across different illumination statistics,” Vision Res. 53, 30–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

I. Motoyoshi, “Highlight-shading relationship as a cue for the perception of translucent and transparent materials,” J. Vis. 10(9):6, 1–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and B. L. Anderson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 10(9):3, 1–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Fink and P. J. Matts, “The effects of skin color distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 493–498 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and J. P. Matts, “Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 433–442 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E.

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E. H.

M. Sawayama and E. H. Adelson, “Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics,” J. Vis. 17(5):7, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akamatsu, S.

H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
[Crossref]

Anderson, B. L.

P. J. Marlow and B. L. Anderson, “Generative constraints on image cues for perceived gloss,” J. Vis. 13(14):2, 1–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and B. L. Anderson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 10(9):3, 1–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref]

Arce-Lopera, C.

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bala, K.

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barquest, M.

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bertin, C.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boyadzhiev, I.

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boynton, M. R.

K. P. Kaiser and M. R. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Bruce, V.

H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
[Crossref]

Changizi, M. A.

M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, A.

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chauhan, T.

T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dror, R. O.

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ferti, B.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fink, B.

S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Fink and P. J. Matts, “The effects of skin color distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 493–498 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and J. P. Matts, “Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 433–442 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fleming, R. W.

R. W. Fleming, “Visual perception of materials and their properties,” Vision Res. 94, 62–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gegenfurtner, K.

R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Gegenfurtner and L. Sharpe, Color Vision: From Genes to Perception (Cambridge University, 2001).

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giesel, M.

M. Giesel and Q. Zaidi, “Frequency-based heuristics for material perception,” J. Vis. 13(14):7, 1–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gill, L.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giron, A.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Graham, D.

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grammer, K.

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and J. P. Matts, “Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 433–442 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hill, H.

H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hirao, T.

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, T.

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Issachar, N.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, K. P.

K. P. Kaiser and M. R. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Kim, J.

J. Kim and B. L. Anderson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 10(9):3, 1–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leder, H.

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, Z.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liao, N.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marlow, P. J.

P. J. Marlow and B. L. Anderson, “Generative constraints on image cues for perceived gloss,” J. Vis. 13(14):2, 1–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masuda, Y.

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matoba, H.

I. Motoyoshi and H. Matoba, “Variability in constancy of the perceived surface reflectance across different illumination statistics,” Vision Res. 53, 30–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, A.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matts, J. P.

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and J. P. Matts, “Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 433–442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matts, P. J.

S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Fink and P. J. Matts, “The effects of skin color distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 493–498 (2008).
[Crossref]

Motoyoshi, I.

I. Motoyoshi and H. Matoba, “Variability in constancy of the perceived surface reflectance across different illumination statistics,” Vision Res. 53, 30–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, “Highlight-shading relationship as a cue for the perception of translucent and transparent materials,” J. Vis. 10(9):6, 1–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakao, K.

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nishida, S.

L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nkengne, A.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okajima, K.

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Paris, S.

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref]

Perrett, D. I.

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rossi, A.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Samson, S.

S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sawayama, M.

M. Sawayama and E. H. Adelson, “Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics,” J. Vis. 17(5):7, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, B.

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sharan, L.

L. Sharan, Y. Li, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics for surface reflectance perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 846–865 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, L.

K. Gegenfurtner and L. Sharpe, Color Vision: From Genes to Perception (Cambridge University, 2001).

Shimojo, S.

M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. L.

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stamatas, G. N.

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stephen, I. D.

K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stirrat, M. R.

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sueeprasan, S.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tan, K. W.

K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thornhill, R.

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tiddeman, B.

K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Toscani, M.

C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uchikawa, K.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiebel, C.

R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wiebel, C. B.

C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wuerger, S.

T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, K.

T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yates, J. M.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zaidi, Q.

M. Giesel and Q. Zaidi, “Frequency-based heuristics for material perception,” J. Vis. 13(14):7, 1–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zardawi, F.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graphics (1)

I. Boyadzhiev, K. Bala, S. Paris, and E. Adelson, “Band-sifting decomposition for image-based material editing,” ACM Trans. Graphics 34, 163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Changizi, Q. Zhang, and S. Shimojo, “Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Biol. Lett. 2, 217–221 (2006).
[Crossref]

Evol. Hum. Behav. (2)

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and J. P. Matts, “Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 433–442 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. W. Tan, B. Tiddeman, and I. D. Stephen, “Skin texture and colour predict perceived health in Asian faces,” Evol. Hum. Behav. 39,320–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cosm. Sci. (1)

S. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Primatol. (1)

I. D. Stephen, J. L. Smith, M. R. Stirrat, and D. I. Perrett, “Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces,” Int. J. Primatol. 30, 845–857 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. P. Matts, B. Fink, K. Grammer, and M. Barquest, “Color homogeneity and visual perception of age, health, and attractiveness of female facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 977–984 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Comp. Psych. (1)

B. Fink, K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill, “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color,” J. Comp. Psych. 115, 92–99 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. (2)

B. Fink and P. J. Matts, “The effects of skin color distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 493–498 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Nkengne, C. Bertin, G. N. Stamatas, A. Giron, A. Rossi, N. Issachar, and B. Ferti, “Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 22, 982–991 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (6)

M. Sawayama and E. H. Adelson, “Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics,” J. Vis. 17(5):7, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. W. Fleming, C. Wiebel, and K. Gegenfurtner, “Perceptual qualities and material classes,” J. Vis. 13(8):9, 1–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi, “Highlight-shading relationship as a cue for the perception of translucent and transparent materials,” J. Vis. 10(9):6, 1–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Giesel and Q. Zaidi, “Frequency-based heuristics for material perception,” J. Vis. 13(14):7, 1–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and B. L. Anderson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 10(9):3, 1–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Marlow and B. L. Anderson, “Generative constraints on image cues for perceived gloss,” J. Vis. 13(14):2, 1–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vision (2)

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vision 3(5), 347–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Chauhan, K. Xiao, and S. Wuerger, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity for skin and skinlike textures,” J. Vision 19(1), 13 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson, “Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities,” Nature 447, 206–209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Rev. (1)

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin,” Opt. Rev. 19, 167–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London B (1)

H. Hill, V. Bruce, and S. Akamatsu, “Perceiving the sex and race of faces: the role of shape and color,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 261, 367–373 (1995).
[Crossref]

Skin Res. Technol. (4)

C. Arce-Lopera, T. Igarashi, K. Nakao, and K. Okajima, “Image statistics on the age perception of human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 19, e273–e278 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18, 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Masuda, T. Yamashita, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “An innovative method to measure skin pigmentation,” Skin Res. Technol. 15,224–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (4)

R. W. Fleming, “Visual perception of materials and their properties,” Vision Res. 94, 62–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. B. Wiebel, M. Toscani, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Statistical correlates of perceived gloss in natural images,” Vision Res. 115, 175–187 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Motoyoshi and H. Matoba, “Variability in constancy of the perceived surface reflectance across different illumination statistics,” Vision Res. 53, 30–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Graham, B. Schwarz, A. Chatterjee, and H. Leder, “Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes,” Vision Res. 120, 11–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. P. Kaiser and M. R. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, 1996).

K. Gegenfurtner and L. Sharpe, Color Vision: From Genes to Perception (Cambridge University, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Examples of skin images used in the experiment.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (A) Histogram of distribution of ratings obtained for 289 skin images. Each panel shows the results for different attributes. (B) Correlation matrix of the rating across attributes. Red represents positive correlation, and blue represents negative correlation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (A) Nine rating attributes of skin appearance arranged on a plane consisting of two cardinal axes derived by a factor analysis. The horizontal axis is Factor 1, and the vertical axis is Factor 2. (B) Sample images of skin patch arranged on the same plane.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (A) Distribution of image statistics obtained for all stimuli. (B) Correlation coefficients of skin image statistics with scores of Factor 1 (pleasantness) and of Factor 2 (glossiness). (C) Correlation coefficients of skin image statistics with the rating for each attribute. Red represents positive correlation, while blue represents negative correlation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (A) Nine rating attributes of skin appearance arranged on a plane consisting of two cardinal axes derived by a factor analysis in face images. The horizontal axis is Factor 1, and the vertical axis is Factor 2. (B) Correlation coefficients of image statistics for the face image, Factor 1 (pleasantness), Factor 2 (glossiness), and nine attributes. Red represents positive correlation; blue represents negative correlation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Examples of skin images used in the third experiment. (A) Factor 1 (pleasantness) manipulated images. The images for which the s.d. of luminance subbands at middle spatial frequencies around 8 c/image were multiplicatively decreased by four levels from the original image on the right. (B) Factor 2 (glossiness) manipulated images. The images for which the s.d. and skew of luminance subbands over all spatial frequencies were decreased by four levels from the original image on the right.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (A) Ratings as a function of the modulation amount of the luminance s.d. of the subband, which are related to Factor 1 (pleasantness). Each panel shows the results for different attributes. Different colors represent the results obtained for three original skin images with different levels of Factor 2 (glossiness): gray represents the results for glossy skin, orange for neutral skin, and blue for matte skin. (B) The ratings as a function of the modulation amount of the luminance s.d. and skew, which are related to Factor 2 (glossiness). Each panel shows the results for different attributes. Different colors represent the results obtained for three original skin images with different levels of Factor 1 (pleasantness): red represents the results for relatively pleasant skin, green for neutral skin, and black for less pleasant skin. The error bar represents $ \pm{1}$ SE across observers.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Isoluminant chromatic images of skin patches in Fig. 1.

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