Abstract

Digital image sensor outputs usually must be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction amplifies noise, thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In subdiffraction-limit (SDL) pixels, where optical and carrier cross talk can be substantial, this problem can become significant when conventional color filter arrays (CFAs) such as the Bayer patterns (RGB and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNR deterioration caused by cross talk in these SDL pixels. We demonstrate an improvement in the color reproduction accuracy and SNR in high cross-talk conditions. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between color accuracy and SNR for the different CFA patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.
  2. M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).
  4. Samsung Tomorrow, “Samsung launches ISOCELL: Innovative image sensor technology for premium mobile devices,” http://global.samsungtomorrow.com/?p=28442
  5. J. Kim and H. Tanaka, “Color filter array with reduced crosstalk effect and image sensor and image pickup apparatus having the same,” U.S. patent8,054,352 (November8, 2011).
  6. Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).
  7. R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, “Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers 51, 1260–1267 (2005).
  8. E. R. Fossum, “The quanta image sensor (QIS): concepts and challenges,” in Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuE1.
  9. B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3971065, Issued July20, 1976.
  10. J. Alakarhu, “Image sensors and image quality in mobile phones,” in Proceedings of International Image Sensor Workshop (2007).
  11. F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).
  12. G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.
  13. ISO, “Photography—Digital still cameras—Determination of exposure index, ISO speed ratings, standard output sensitivity, and recommended exposure index,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006).
  14. P.-C. Hung, “Sensitivity metamerism index for digital still camera,” Proc. SPIE 4922, 1–14 (2002).
  15. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, “Color channel weights in a noise evaluation,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2011), pp. 114–117.

2011 (1)

F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).

2005 (1)

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, “Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers 51, 1260–1267 (2005).

2002 (1)

P.-C. Hung, “Sensitivity metamerism index for digital still camera,” Proc. SPIE 4922, 1–14 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. C.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Alakarhu, J.

J. Alakarhu, “Image sensors and image quality in mobile phones,” in Proceedings of International Image Sensor Workshop (2007).

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, “Color channel weights in a noise evaluation,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2011), pp. 114–117.

Bayer, B. E.

B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3971065, Issued July20, 1976.

Chen, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).

Cho, H.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Chuang, C.-C.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dokoutchaev, A.

F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).

Drew, M. S.

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

Eliasson, H.

F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).

Finlayson, G. D.

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

Fossum, E. R.

E. R. Fossum, “The quanta image sensor (QIS): concepts and challenges,” in Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuE1.

Furumiya, M.

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hung, P.-C.

P.-C. Hung, “Sensitivity metamerism index for digital still camera,” Proc. SPIE 4922, 1–14 (2002).

Jung, J.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Jung, S.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Kim, B.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Kim, J.

J. Kim and H. Tanaka, “Color filter array with reduced crosstalk effect and image sensor and image pickup apparatus having the same,” U.S. patent8,054,352 (November8, 2011).

Kim, J.-H.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Kim, T.-C.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Kim, Y.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Koskinen, S.

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, “Color channel weights in a noise evaluation,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2011), pp. 114–117.

Kurosawa, S.

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, J.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, K.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, T.-H.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, W.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, Y.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, Y. J.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Lee, Y. K.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Li, F.

F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).

Lim, M.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Liu, J.-C.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).

Lukac, R.

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, “Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers 51, 1260–1267 (2005).

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mao, D.

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

Moon, C.-R.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Moon, K.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Muramatsu, Y.

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nakashiba, Y.

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ohkubo, H.

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Park, H.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Plataniotis, K. N.

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, “Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers 51, 1260–1267 (2005).

Qian, Y.

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

Rhodes, H. E.

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tai, H.-C.

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

Tanaka, H.

J. Kim and H. Tanaka, “Color filter array with reduced crosstalk effect and image sensor and image pickup apparatus having the same,” U.S. patent8,054,352 (November8, 2011).

Tuulos, E.

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, “Color channel weights in a noise evaluation,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2011), pp. 114–117.

Venezia, V.

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

Yaung, D.-N.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).

Yoo, J.

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers (1)

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, “Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers 51, 1260–1267 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. Furumiya, H. Ohkubo, Y. Muramatsu, S. Kurosawa, and Y. Nakashiba, “High sensitivity and no-cross-talk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2221–2227 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Li, H. Eliasson, and A. Dokoutchaev, “Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization,” Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760L (2011).

P.-C. Hung, “Sensitivity metamerism index for digital still camera,” Proc. SPIE 4922, 1–14 (2002).

Other (11)

J. C. Ahn, C.-R. Moon, B. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Kim, M. Lim, W. Lee, H. Park, K. Moon, J. Yoo, Y. J. Lee, B. Park, S. Jung, J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, J. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T.-C. Kim, H. Cho, D. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Advanced image sensor technology for pixel scaling down toward 1.0  μm (Invited),” in IEDM Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

ISO, “Photography—Digital still cameras—Determination of exposure index, ISO speed ratings, standard output sensitivity, and recommended exposure index,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006).

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, “Color channel weights in a noise evaluation,” in International Image Sensor Workshop (2011), pp. 114–117.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Chuang, J.-C. Liu, and D.-N. Yaung, “Image sensor with deep trench isolation structure,” U.S. patent20120025199 (February2, 2012).

Samsung Tomorrow, “Samsung launches ISOCELL: Innovative image sensor technology for premium mobile devices,” http://global.samsungtomorrow.com/?p=28442

J. Kim and H. Tanaka, “Color filter array with reduced crosstalk effect and image sensor and image pickup apparatus having the same,” U.S. patent8,054,352 (November8, 2011).

Y. Qian, H.-C. Tai, D. Mao, V. Venezia, and H. E. Rhodes, “Image sensors having dark sidewalls between color filters to reduce optical crosstalk,” U.S. patent20120019695 (January26, 2012).

E. R. Fossum, “The quanta image sensor (QIS): concepts and challenges,” in Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuE1.

B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3971065, Issued July20, 1976.

J. Alakarhu, “Image sensors and image quality in mobile phones,” in Proceedings of International Image Sensor Workshop (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. CFAs of the Bayer pattern and two proposed patterns with black square demarcating the kernel for each CFA.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transformation of the RGBCY kernel to sRGBCY showing yellow pixels composed of half-red and half-green filters and cyan pixels half-covered by blue and green filters.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Full CFA pattern showing RGBCY pattern and its modified form sRGBCY, which uses two half-primary filters for each secondary color filter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Cross-talk illustration. Only the central pixel is illuminated, but the surrounding pixels receive some signal due to cross talk from the illuminated pixel.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Color error—SNR trade-off curves for simulations using D65 illuminant (left) and CIE illuminant A (right) in high cross-talk conditions.

Tables (6)

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Table 1. Sensor Simulation Parameter Values

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Table 2. White Balance Weights

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Table 3. Color Error and SMI using D65 Illuminant

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Table 4. Color Error and SMI Using CIE A Illuminant

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Table 5. SNR Results for Different CFA Patterns

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Table 6. Color Correction Matrices for Different Color Error Levels for High Cross Talk Conditions (D65 Illuminant)

Equations (28)

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D=2.44λF.
R=R+YG2,
G=G+YR+CB3,
B=B+CG2.
S(λ)=k·Φ(λ)·M(λ)·CT(λ).
XR=[a11a12a13a21a22a23a31a32a33].
SR=(1xrr)·SR+i=14(xgg4)·SG,i.
Ri=1004.6ΔEi,
ΔE00=[(ΔLkLSL)2+(ΔCkCSC)2+(ΔHkHSH)2+RT(ΔCkCSC)(ΔHkHSH)]12.
ΔE=1Ni=1NΔEi,
Y=0.2125R+0.7154G+0.0721B.
σ(D)=[σ2(Y)+C1σ2(RY)+C2σ2(BY)]12,
minTF(T)=[(ΔE(T);SNR(T)].
[2.920.440.542.700.821.220.740.271.78]
[1.950.610.751.430.481.210.430.091.55]
[1.480.680.900.810.341.170.280.011.36]
[1.110.370.630.901.141.740.740.513.47]
[0.820.410.360.150.941.220.280.352.62]
[0.740.440.140.050.790.690.170.221.92]
[0.790.300.320.210.700.220.370.000.99]
[0.610.310.420.020.580.400.370.111.08]
[0.490.310.450.100.500.460.360.191.10]
[0.970.240.160.101.020.000.090.270.92]
[0.900.440.200.010.760.000.040.190.82]
[0.840.560.420.120.590.030.000.150.70]
[1.250.340.360.720.670.670.430.011.39]
[0.960.320.420.450.570.710.440.111.38]
[0.720.300.460.220.490.750.450.211.38]

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