Abstract

Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red–green and yellow–blue chromatic directions than in the white–black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  8. B. Montagna, F. Pestilli, and M. Carrasco, “Attention trades off spatial acuity,” Vis. Res. 49, 735–745 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Goto, T. Toriu, and J. Tanahashi, “Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function,” Vis. Res. 41, 1483–1487 (2001).
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  11. D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. O. Murray, “The effects of spatial attention in early human visual cortex are stimulus independent,” J. Vis. 8(10):2, 1–11 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. E. Blaser, G. Sperling, and Z. Lu, “Measuring the amplification of attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11681–11686 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. K. Andersen, M. M. Müller, and S. A. Hillyard, “Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention,” J. Vis. 9(6):2, 1-7 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
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  25. M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global effects of feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 631–632 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global feature-based attention for motion and color,” Vis. Res. 43, 629–637 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Sato and K. Uchikawa, “Comparison of effects of the spatial attention on stereo and motion discrimination thresholds,” J. Vis. 10(7):270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. Montagna, F. Pestilli, and M. Carrasco, “Attention trades off spatial acuity,” Vis. Res. 49, 735–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Andersen, M. M. Müller, and S. A. Hillyard, “Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention,” J. Vis. 9(6):2, 1-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. O. Murray, “The effects of spatial attention in early human visual cortex are stimulus independent,” J. Vis. 8(10):2, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Fuller and M. Carrasco, “Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue,” Vis. Res. 46, 4032–4047 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. C. Morrone, V. Denti, and D. Spinelli, “Different attentional resources modulate the gain mechanisms for color and luminance contrast,” Vis. Res. 44, 1389–1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Reynolds and L. Chelazzi, “Attention modulation of visual processing,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 611–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global feature-based attention for motion and color,” Vis. Res. 43, 629–637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global effects of feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 631–632 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Goto, T. Toriu, and J. Tanahashi, “Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function,” Vis. Res. 41, 1483–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Carrasco, C. Penpeci-Talgar, and M. Eckstein, “Spatial convert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement,” Vis. Res. 40, 1203–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Brawn and R. J. Snowden, “Can one pay attention to a particular color?” Percept. Psychophys. 61, 860–873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Blaser, G. Sperling, and Z. Lu, “Measuring the amplification of attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11681–11686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, T. Nishi, K. Matsumiya, and I. Kuriki, “Selective sensitivity reduction in chromatic and luminance channels by lowered visual attention,” Perception 27, Supplement, 68–69 (1998).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

C. W. Eriksen and J. D. St. James, “Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: a zoom lens model,” Percept. Psychophys. 40, 225–240 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Thornton and E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, R. S. Harwerth, and J. M. White, “Color vision is altered during the suppression phase of binocular rivalry,” Science 218, 802–804 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

M. I. Posner, C. R. R. Snyder, and B. J. Davidson, “Attention and the detection of signals,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109, 160–174 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Treisman and G. Gelage, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Allen, K.

W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amiri, H.

W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, S. K.

S. K. Andersen, M. M. Müller, and S. A. Hillyard, “Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention,” J. Vis. 9(6):2, 1-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anllo-Vento, L.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, E.

E. Blaser, G. Sperling, and Z. Lu, “Measuring the amplification of attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11681–11686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. M.

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global feature-based attention for motion and color,” Vis. Res. 43, 629–637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global effects of feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 631–632 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brawn, P.

P. Brawn and R. J. Snowden, “Can one pay attention to a particular color?” Percept. Psychophys. 61, 860–873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buracas, G. T.

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global feature-based attention for motion and color,” Vis. Res. 43, 629–637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global effects of feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 631–632 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buxton, R. B.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

Carrasco, M.

B. Montagna, F. Pestilli, and M. Carrasco, “Attention trades off spatial acuity,” Vis. Res. 49, 735–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fuller and M. Carrasco, “Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue,” Vis. Res. 46, 4032–4047 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrasco, C. Penpeci-Talgar, and M. Eckstein, “Spatial convert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement,” Vis. Res. 40, 1203–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrasco, “Covert attention increases contrast sensitivity: psychophysical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies,” in Progress in Brain Research, S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, L. M. Martinez, J.-M. Alonso, and P. U. Tse, eds. (Elsevier, 2006), Vol. 154, pp. 33–70.

Chelazzi, L.

J. H. Reynolds and L. Chelazzi, “Attention modulation of visual processing,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 611–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, B. J.

M. I. Posner, C. R. R. Snyder, and B. J. Davidson, “Attention and the detection of signals,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109, 160–174 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Denti, V.

M. C. Morrone, V. Denti, and D. Spinelli, “Different attentional resources modulate the gain mechanisms for color and luminance contrast,” Vis. Res. 44, 1389–1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubowitz, D. J.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eckstein, M.

M. Carrasco, C. Penpeci-Talgar, and M. Eckstein, “Spatial convert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement,” Vis. Res. 40, 1203–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, C. W.

C. W. Eriksen and J. D. St. James, “Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: a zoom lens model,” Percept. Psychophys. 40, 225–240 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eskew, R. T.

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, “Chromatic detection and discrimination,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. In, L. T. Sharpe, and Gegenfurtner, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 18, pp. 345–368.

Frank, L. R.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, S.

S. Fuller and M. Carrasco, “Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue,” Vis. Res. 46, 4032–4047 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Furui, M. M.

D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gelage, G.

A. M. Treisman and G. Gelage, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Giulianini, F.

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, “Chromatic detection and discrimination,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. In, L. T. Sharpe, and Gegenfurtner, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 18, pp. 345–368.

Goto, M.

M. Goto, T. Toriu, and J. Tanahashi, “Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function,” Vis. Res. 41, 1483–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harwerth, R. S.

E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, R. S. Harwerth, and J. M. White, “Color vision is altered during the suppression phase of binocular rivalry,” Science 218, 802–804 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, H. J.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hillyard, S. A.

S. K. Andersen, M. M. Müller, and S. A. Hillyard, “Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention,” J. Vis. 9(6):2, 1-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hinrichs, H.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

James, J. D. St.

C. W. Eriksen and J. D. St. James, “Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: a zoom lens model,” Percept. Psychophys. 40, 225–240 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. E.

Kastner, S.

D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

King-Smith, P. E.

Kuriki, I.

K. Uchikawa, T. Nishi, K. Matsumiya, and I. Kuriki, “Selective sensitivity reduction in chromatic and luminance channels by lowered visual attention,” Perception 27, Supplement, 68–69 (1998).

Levi, D. M.

E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, R. S. Harwerth, and J. M. White, “Color vision is altered during the suppression phase of binocular rivalry,” Science 218, 802–804 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

E. Blaser, G. Sperling, and Z. Lu, “Measuring the amplification of attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11681–11686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumiya, K.

K. Uchikawa, T. Nishi, K. Matsumiya, and I. Kuriki, “Selective sensitivity reduction in chromatic and luminance channels by lowered visual attention,” Perception 27, Supplement, 68–69 (1998).

McLellan, J. S.

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, “Chromatic detection and discrimination,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. In, L. T. Sharpe, and Gegenfurtner, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 18, pp. 345–368.

Montagna, B.

B. Montagna, F. Pestilli, and M. Carrasco, “Attention trades off spatial acuity,” Vis. Res. 49, 735–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morrone, M. C.

M. C. Morrone, V. Denti, and D. Spinelli, “Different attentional resources modulate the gain mechanisms for color and luminance contrast,” Vis. Res. 44, 1389–1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M. M.

S. K. Andersen, M. M. Müller, and S. A. Hillyard, “Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention,” J. Vis. 9(6):2, 1-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S. O.

S. O. Murray, “The effects of spatial attention in early human visual cortex are stimulus independent,” J. Vis. 8(10):2, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, T.

K. Uchikawa, T. Nishi, K. Matsumiya, and I. Kuriki, “Selective sensitivity reduction in chromatic and luminance channels by lowered visual attention,” Perception 27, Supplement, 68–69 (1998).

O’Connor, D. H.

D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penpeci-Talgar, C.

M. Carrasco, C. Penpeci-Talgar, and M. Eckstein, “Spatial convert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement,” Vis. Res. 40, 1203–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pestilli, F.

B. Montagna, F. Pestilli, and M. Carrasco, “Attention trades off spatial acuity,” Vis. Res. 49, 735–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinsk, M. A.

D. H. O’Connor, M. M. Furui, M. A. Pinsk, and S. Kastner, “Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 1203–1209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Posner, M. I.

M. I. Posner, C. R. R. Snyder, and B. J. Davidson, “Attention and the detection of signals,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109, 160–174 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Prinzmetal, W.

W. Prinzmetal, H. Amiri, K. Allen, and T. Edwards, “Phenomenology of attention: 1. Color, location, orientation, and spatial frequency,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24, 261–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, E. N.

J. E. Thornton and E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. H.

J. H. Reynolds and L. Chelazzi, “Attention modulation of visual processing,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 611–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saenz, M.

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global feature-based attention for motion and color,” Vis. Res. 43, 629–637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Saenz, G. T. Buracas, and G. M. Boynton, “Global effects of feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 631–632 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

M. Sato and K. Uchikawa, “Comparison of effects of the spatial attention on stereo and motion discrimination thresholds,” J. Vis. 10(7):270 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa and M. Sato, “Saccadic suppression of achromatic and chromatic responses measured by increment-threshold spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sereno, M. I.

A. Martinez, L. Anllo-Vento, M. I. Sereno, L. R. Frank, R. B. Buxton, D. J. Dubowitz, E. C. Wong, H. Hinrichs, H. J. Heinze, and S. A. Hillyard, “Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. L.

E. L. Smith, D. M. Levi, R. S. Harwerth, and J. M. White, “Color vision is altered during the suppression phase of binocular rivalry,” Science 218, 802–804 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Snowden, R. J.

P. Brawn and R. J. Snowden, “Can one pay attention to a particular color?” Percept. Psychophys. 61, 860–873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, C. R. R.

M. I. Posner, C. R. R. Snyder, and B. J. Davidson, “Attention and the detection of signals,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109, 160–174 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, G.

E. Blaser, G. Sperling, and Z. Lu, “Measuring the amplification of attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11681–11686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, D.

M. C. Morrone, V. Denti, and D. Spinelli, “Different attentional resources modulate the gain mechanisms for color and luminance contrast,” Vis. Res. 44, 1389–1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, A.

Tanahashi, J.

M. Goto, T. Toriu, and J. Tanahashi, “Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function,” Vis. Res. 41, 1483–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. E.

J. E. Thornton and E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Toriu, T.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Stimulus configurations used in experiments 1 and 2. (a) A circular test stimulus was presented either on the left or the right from the central fixation point in the peripheral visual field. Increment thresholds were measured in a single task condition in which the observer paid attention only to the test stimulus. They were also measured in a dual task condition in which the observer performed both the central task and the peripheral task. (b) A pattern stimulus with two concentric rings was used for the central attention task. The observer’s task was to respond to the number of rings with two gaps.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top panels: increment spectral sensitivity functions in the periphery for three observers and the average. Bottom panel: log threshold elevation for detecting the peripheral stimulus caused by the central attention task.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log threshold elevation for detecting the peripheral stimulus caused by the central attention task. Top panel: log threshold elevations are shown for three central stimulus color-conditions. Bottom panel: average across the three central conditions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Stimulus configuration used in experiment 3. Both central and peripheral stimuli consisted of eight disks. The observer’s task was to detect the stimulus with higher contrast than the other seven distractors both for the central and the peripheral stimulus.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scattering diagram showing log threshold elevation for the peripheral stimulus plotted against that for the central stimulus. The inner and outer colors of each symbol indicate the central and peripheral stimulus colors. Group (a) the central and peripheral colors are the same. Group (b) the central and peripheral colors are different chromatic colors. Group (c) the central and peripheral colors are chromatic and achromatic colors.

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