Abstract

If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would “jump out to the eye.” This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  23. D. L. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
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  28. G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Long, Z. Yang, and D. Purves, “Spectral statistics in natural scenes predict hue, saturation, and brightness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6013–6018 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. N. Endrikhovski, “Computing color categories,” Proc. SPIE 3959, 356 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vis. 6(9):12, 996–1007 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. C. McDermott and M. A. Webster, “Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A182–A187 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Witzel and A. Franklin, “Do focal colors look particularly ‘colorful?’” in 22nd Symposium of the International Color Vision Society (ICVS2013), V. Bonnardel, J. Barbur, and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, eds. (The Color Group, 2013), p. 124.
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  37. S. M. Wuerger, L. T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf, “Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry,” Vis. Res. 35, 827–835 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Switkes, “Contrast salience across three-dimensional chromoluminance space,” Vis. Res. 48, 1812–1819 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. S. Stevens, “To honor Fechner and repeal his law: a power function, not a log function, describes the operating characteristic of a sensory system,” Science 133, 80–86 (1961).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1, 1–33 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel, J. Maule, and A. Franklin, “Focal colors as perceptual anchors of color categories,” J. Vis. 13(9):1164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. C. McDermott and M. A. Webster, “Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A182–A187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vazquez-Corral, J. K. O’Regan, M. Vanrell, and G. D. Finlayson, “A new spectrally sharpened sensor basis to predict color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation,” J. Vis. 12(6):7, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vis. 11(8):6, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Is there a lateralized category effect for color?” J. Vis. 11(12):16, 1–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

M. Olkkonen, C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for real surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):16, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6, 1–18 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical reaction times for equally discriminable colors,” Perception 38, ECVP Abstract Supplement, 14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon, “A neural basis for unique hues?” Curr. Biol. 19, R441–R442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World Color Survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Switkes, “Contrast salience across three-dimensional chromoluminance space,” Vis. Res. 48, 1812–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1436–1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Language, thought and color: recent developments,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 10, 51–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 16608–16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Long, Z. Yang, and D. Purves, “Spectral statistics in natural scenes predict hue, saturation, and brightness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6013–6018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vis. 6(9):12, 996–1007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. G. Kuehni, “Focal color variability and unique hue stimulus variability,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 409–426 (2005).

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 8386–8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. N. Endrikhovski, “Computing color categories,” Proc. SPIE 3959, 356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Sturges and T. W. A. Whitfield, “Salient features of Munsell color space as a function of monolexemic naming and response latencies,” Vis. Res. 37, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. M. Wuerger, L. T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf, “Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry,” Vis. Res. 35, 827–835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red--or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vis. Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. A. Collier, “Review of ‘basic color terms: their universality and evolution’,” Language 49, 245–248 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. Rosch Heider, “Universals in color naming and memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 10–20 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

S. S. Stevens, “To honor Fechner and repeal his law: a power function, not a log function, describes the operating characteristic of a sensory system,” Science 133, 80–86 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

R. W. Brown and E. H. Lenneberg, “A study in language and cognition,” J. Abnormal Soc. Psychol. 49, 454–462 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red--or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, L. L.

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vis. 11(8):6, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, S.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vis. Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. M.

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World Color Survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 16608–16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. W.

R. W. Brown and E. H. Lenneberg, “A study in language and cognition,” J. Abnormal Soc. Psychol. 49, 454–462 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Collier, G. A.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Collier, “Review of ‘basic color terms: their universality and evolution’,” Language 49, 245–248 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. S.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 8386–8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vis. 6(9):12, 996–1007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorflinger, G. K.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Endrikhovski, S. N.

S. N. Endrikhovski, “Computing color categories,” Proc. SPIE 3959, 356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, G. D.

J. Vazquez-Corral, J. K. O’Regan, M. Vanrell, and G. D. Finlayson, “A new spectrally sharpened sensor basis to predict color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation,” J. Vis. 12(6):7, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, A.

C. Witzel, J. Maule, and A. Franklin, “Focal colors as perceptual anchors of color categories,” J. Vis. 13(9):1164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel and A. Franklin, “Do focal colors look particularly ‘colorful?’” in 22nd Symposium of the International Color Vision Society (ICVS2013), V. Bonnardel, J. Barbur, and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, eds. (The Color Group, 2013), p. 124.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1, 1–33 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Is there a lateralized category effect for color?” J. Vis. 11(12):16, 1–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for real surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):16, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6, 1–18 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical reaction times for equally discriminable colors,” Perception 38, ECVP Abstract Supplement, 14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Category effects on color discrimination,” in Progress in Color Studies IV, C. P. Biggam, ed. (to be published).

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red--or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gulick, T. A.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T.

C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical reaction times for equally discriminable colors,” Perception 38, ECVP Abstract Supplement, 14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for real surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):16, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6, 1–18 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara, Ishihara’s Tests for Color Deficiency (Kanehara Trading, 2004).

Jaikumar, J.

Johnson, D. L.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1436–1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Language, thought and color: recent developments,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 10, 51–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 8386–8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keene, B.

Khetarpal, N.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1436–1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

S. M. Wuerger, L. T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf, “Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry,” Vis. Res. 35, 827–835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, R. Shamey, M. Mathews, and B. Keene, “Perceptual prominence of Hering’s chromatic primaries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 159–165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Focal color variability and unique hue stimulus variability,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 409–426 (2005).

Lenneberg, E. H.

R. W. Brown and E. H. Lenneberg, “A study in language and cognition,” J. Abnormal Soc. Psychol. 49, 454–462 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, D. T.

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World Color Survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 16608–16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Logvinenko, A. D.

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vis. 11(8):6, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Long, F.

F. Long, Z. Yang, and D. Purves, “Spectral statistics in natural scenes predict hue, saturation, and brightness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6013–6018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madan, G.

Maloney, L. T.

S. M. Wuerger, L. T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf, “Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry,” Vis. Res. 35, 827–835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, M.

Maule, J.

C. Witzel, J. Maule, and A. Franklin, “Focal colors as perceptual anchors of color categories,” J. Vis. 13(9):1164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McCorkle, C.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, K. C.

Meyer, M. A.

G. A. Collier, G. K. Dorflinger, T. A. Gulick, D. L. Johnson, C. McCorkle, M. A. Meyer, D. D. Wood, and L. Yip, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mizokami, Y.

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vis. 6(9):12, 996–1007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, “A neural basis for unique hues?” Curr. Biol. 19, R441–R442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Regan, J. K.

J. Vazquez-Corral, J. K. O’Regan, M. Vanrell, and G. D. Finlayson, “A new spectrally sharpened sensor basis to predict color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation,” J. Vis. 12(6):7, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olkkonen, M.

M. Olkkonen, C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for real surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):16, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6, 1–18 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vis. Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, D. L.

D. L. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Purves, D.

F. Long, Z. Yang, and D. Purves, “Spectral statistics in natural scenes predict hue, saturation, and brightness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6013–6018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regier, T.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1436–1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Language, thought and color: recent developments,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 10, 51–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 8386–8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosch Heider, E.

E. Rosch Heider, “Universals in color naming and memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 10–20 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shamey, R.

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, “To honor Fechner and repeal his law: a power function, not a log function, describes the operating characteristic of a sensory system,” Science 133, 80–86 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sturges, J.

J. Sturges and T. W. A. Whitfield, “Salient features of Munsell color space as a function of monolexemic naming and response latencies,” Vis. Res. 37, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Switkes, E.

E. Switkes, “Contrast salience across three-dimensional chromoluminance space,” Vis. Res. 48, 1812–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaithilingham, E.

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J. Vazquez-Corral, J. K. O’Regan, M. Vanrell, and G. D. Finlayson, “A new spectrally sharpened sensor basis to predict color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation,” J. Vis. 12(6):7, 1–14 (2012).
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C. Witzel, J. Maule, and A. Franklin, “Focal colors as perceptual anchors of color categories,” J. Vis. 13(9):1164 (2013).
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C. Witzel and A. Franklin, “Do focal colors look particularly ‘colorful?’” in 22nd Symposium of the International Color Vision Society (ICVS2013), V. Bonnardel, J. Barbur, and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, eds. (The Color Group, 2013), p. 124.

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M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6, 1–18 (2009).
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C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Is there a lateralized category effect for color?” J. Vis. 11(12):16, 1–25 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical reaction times for equally discriminable colors,” Perception 38, ECVP Abstract Supplement, 14 (2009).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (6)

F. Long, Z. Yang, and D. Purves, “Spectral statistics in natural scenes predict hue, saturation, and brightness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6013–6018 (2006).
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S. M. Wuerger, L. T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf, “Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry,” Vis. Res. 35, 827–835 (1995).
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E. Switkes, “Contrast salience across three-dimensional chromoluminance space,” Vis. Res. 48, 1812–1819 (2008).
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S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
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A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
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Other (4)

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Category effects on color discrimination,” in Progress in Color Studies IV, C. P. Biggam, ed. (to be published).

C. Witzel, “Unterschiede in der Farbwahrnehmung,” in Was ist Farbe?—Bunte Beiträge aus der Wissenschaft, A. Groh, ed. (Weidler, 2011), pp. 39–62.

C. Witzel and A. Franklin, “Do focal colors look particularly ‘colorful?’” in 22nd Symposium of the International Color Vision Society (ICVS2013), V. Bonnardel, J. Barbur, and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, eds. (The Color Group, 2013), p. 124.

S. Ishihara, Ishihara’s Tests for Color Deficiency (Kanehara Trading, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Saturation matching task. The left side of the graphic illustrates the stimulus display: test (left disk) and comparison (right disk) were shown side by side on a gray background. The right side of the graphic illustrates the response modus: the upper key increased, the left decreased the saturation, as illustrated by the arrows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Subjective saturation in CIELUV. Panels refer to (a) red, (b) yellow, (c) green, and (d) blue stimulus sets. The x axis represents the azimuth in CIELUV. The y axis shows the saturation (radius in CIELUV) of the adjusted comparison color. The radius of the test colors is given in the title above each graphic. The thick black curve above the area shows the adjusted saturation averaged across comparisons with a different hue than the test color. The white curve corresponds to the baseline matches of each test color with itself. The colors of the area refer to the color categories of the basic color terms; the vertical dotted and colored lines represent the focal hues. The transparent shadow around the lines refers to their standard error of mean. For illustration purposes, the colored areas under the thick curve show color categories based on the average category boundaries (solid vertical lines) measured in the parallel study [29]. The color of the areas refers to the respective category. The dotted curve illustrates the profile of the visual gamut; it is rescaled to fit into the y axis. Error bars indicate standard errors of mean.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Subjective saturation in JND space. The thick solid curve on top of the area shows the average differences between test and comparison colors in JND space. The left axis corresponds to these differences. The thin and the dotted curves show the discriminable saturation in JND space of the test color and visual gamut, respectively. In both axes, one unit corresponds to one JND. Apart from that, format as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Subjective saturation at the visual gamut. The y axis represents the discriminable saturation as the number of JNDs away from the adaptation point. The thick, solid curve shows the subjective saturation extrapolated to the visual gamut. The dotted curve represents the discriminable saturation at the visual gamut. Apart from that, format as in Figs. 2 and 3. Note the differences in axis scaling across panels.

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