Abstract

Visual neural representation is constrained by the statistical properties of the environment. Prior analysis of cone pigment excitations for natural images revealed three principal components corresponding to the major retinogeniculate pathways identified by anatomical and physiological studies in primates. Here, principal component analyses were conducted on the excitations of rhodopsin, cone opsins, and melanopsin for nine hyperspectral images under 21 natural illuminants. The results suggested that rhodopsin and melanopsin may contribute to the three major retinogeniculate pathways. Rhodopsin and melanopsin may provide additional constraints in natural scene statistics, leading to new components that cannot be revealed by analysis based on cone opsin excitations only.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

H. Horiguchi, J. Winawer, R. F. Dougherty, and B. A. Wandell, “Human trichromacy revisited,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, E260–E269 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. H. Li, J. Verweij, J. H. Long, and J. L. Schnapf, “Gap-junctional coupling of mammalian rod photoreceptors and its effect on visual detection,” J. Neurosci. 32, 3552–3562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Brown, S.-i. Tsujimura, A. E. Allen, J. Wynne, R. Bedford, G. Vickery, A. Vugler, and R. J. Lucas, “Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1134–1141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Nascimento and O. Masuda, “Psychophysical optimization of lighting spectra for naturalness, preference, and chromatic diversity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A144–A151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares and S. M. C. Nascimento, “A chromatic diversity index based on complex scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A174–A181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A “melanopic” spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of melanopsin photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Hatori and S. Panda, “The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light,” Trends Mol. Med. 16, 435–446 (2010).

G. S. Lall, V. L. Revell, H. Momiji, J. Al Enezi, C. M. Altimus, A. D. Güler, C. Aguilar, M. A. Cameron, S. Allender, and M. W. Hankins, “Distinct contributions of rod, cone, and melanopsin photoreceptors to encoding irradiance,” Neuron 66, 417–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jocobs, “Recent progress in understanding mammalian color vision,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 422–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Combination of rod and cone inputs to in the parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway,” J. Vis. 10(2):11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goddard, D. J. Mannion, J. S. McDonald, S. G. Solomon, and C. W. Clifford, “Combination of subcortical color channels in human visual cortex,” J. Vis. 10(5), 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Danilova and J. Mollon, “Parafoveal color discrimination: a chromaticity locus of enhanced discrimination,” J. Vis. 10(1), 4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Osorio and M. Vorobyev, “A review of the evolution of animal colour vision and visual communication signals,” Vis. Res. 48, 2042–2051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Geisler, “Visual perception and the statistical properties of natural scenes,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 167–192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Shevell and F. A. Kingdom, “Color in complex scenes,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 143–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ribelayga, Y. Cao, and S. C. Mangel, “The circadian clock in the retina controls rod-cone coupling,” Neuron 59, 790–801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, H. E. Smithson, Q. Zaidi, and B. B. Lee, “Specificity of cone inputs to macaque retinal ganglion cells,” J. Neurophysiol. 95, 837–849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. M. Dacey, H. Liao, B. Peterson, F. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal color and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Hornstein, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, and J. L. Schnapf, “Gap-junctional coupling and absolute sensitivity of photoreceptors in Macaque retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 11201–11209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Hattar, R. J. Lucas, N. Mrosovsky, S. Thompson, R. Douglas, M. W. Hankins, J. Lem, M. Biel, F. Hofmann, and R. G. Foster, “Melanopsin and rod–cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice,” Nature 424, 75–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. F. Ruby, T. J. Brennan, X. Xie, V. Cao, P. Franken, H. C. Heller, and B. F. O’Hara, “Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light,” Science 298, 2211–2213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. C. Regan, C. Julliot, B. Simmen, F. Viénot, P. Charles-Dominique, and J. D. Mollon, “Fruits, foliage and the evolution of primate colour vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 356, 229–283 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Dominy and P. W. Lucas, “Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates,” Nature 410, 363–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Conway, “Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (v-1),” J. Neurosci. 21, 2768–2783 (2001).

E. P. Simoncelli and B. A. Olshausen, “Natural image statistics and neural representation,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 1193–1216 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod-cone interactions assessed in inferred postreceptoral pathways,” J. Vis. 1(1), 42–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Masland, “The fundamental plan of the retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 877–886 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743–775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sumner and J. Mollon, “Chromaticity as a signal of ripeness in fruits taken by primates,” J. Exp. Biol. 203, 1987–2000 (2000).

1999

1998

1997

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

G. H. Jacobs, J. F. Deegan, J. Neitz, M. A. Crognale, and M. Neitz, “Photopigments and color vision in the nocturnal monkey, Aotus,” Vis. Res. 33, 1773–1783 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Hateren, “Spatial, temporal and spectral pre-processing for colour vision,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 251, 61–68 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Richman, “A cautionary note concerning a commonly applied eigenanalysis procedure,” Tellus B 40, 50–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983

G. Buchsbaum and A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmission in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

1982

H. B. Barlow, “What causes trichromacy? A theoretical analysis using comb-filtered spectra,” Vis. Res. 22, 635–643 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

1975

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966

T. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966).

1953

R. Stair and R. Johnston, “Ultraviolet spectral radiant energy reflected from the moon,” J. Res. Nat. Bureau Stan. 51, 81–84 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, C.

G. S. Lall, V. L. Revell, H. Momiji, J. Al Enezi, C. M. Altimus, A. D. Güler, C. Aguilar, M. A. Cameron, S. Allender, and M. W. Hankins, “Distinct contributions of rod, cone, and melanopsin photoreceptors to encoding irradiance,” Neuron 66, 417–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

al Enezi, J.

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A “melanopic” spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of melanopsin photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lall, V. L. Revell, H. Momiji, J. Al Enezi, C. M. Altimus, A. D. Güler, C. Aguilar, M. A. Cameron, S. Allender, and M. W. Hankins, “Distinct contributions of rod, cone, and melanopsin photoreceptors to encoding irradiance,” Neuron 66, 417–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allen, A. E.

T. M. Brown, S.-i. Tsujimura, A. E. Allen, J. Wynne, R. Bedford, G. Vickery, A. Vugler, and R. J. Lucas, “Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1134–1141 (2012).
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Allender, S.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illuminants and photopigment spectral sensitivity functions. (a) Spectral distributions correspond to four representative “D” illuminants for natural skylights. (b) Normalized spectral sensitivity functions of rhodopsin (R), L-, M-, S-cone opsins, and melanopsin (I).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Rhodopsin- and cone-opsin-based analysis. The coefficients values averaged for the nine images versus the CCT of the “D” illuminants are shown. Each panel corresponds to one of the four principal components corresponding to the first level of analysis (A, left column), or to one of the three principal components corresponding to the second level of analysis (B, right column). Error bars are the standard deviation of the results for the nine images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Melanopsin-, rhodopsin-, and cone-opsin-based analysis. The coefficients values averaged for the nine images versus the CCT of the “D” illuminants are shown. Each panel corresponds to one of the five principal components corresponding to the first level of analysis (A, left column), or to one of the four principal components corresponding to the second level of analysis (B, right column). Error bars are the standard deviation of the results for the nine images.

Tables (6)

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Table 1. Averaged Coefficients Values Across the Illuminant from the First Level of Analysis for the Cone-Opsin-Based Analysisa

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Table 2. Averaged Coefficient Values Across the Illuminant from the Second Level of Analysis for the Cone-Opsin-Based Analysisa

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Table 3. Averaged Coefficient Values Across the Illuminant from the First Level of Analysis for the Rhodopsin- and Cone-Opsin-Based Analysis

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Table 4. Averaged Coefficients Values Across the Illuminant from the Second Level of Analysis for the Rhodopsin- and Cone-Opsin-Based Analysis

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Table 5. Averaged Coefficients Values Across the Illuminant from the First Level of Analysis for the Melanopsin-, Rhodopsin-, and Cone-Opsin-Based Analysis

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Table 6. Averaged Coefficients Values Across the Illuminant from the Second level of Analysis for the Melanopsin-, Rhodopsin-, and Cone-Opsin-Based Analysis

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=log(EO)mean[log(EO)],
log(kEO)mean[log(kEO)]=log(k)+log(Eo)log(k)mean[log(Eo)]=E.
P=1nfi*Ei,

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