Abstract

We studied numerically the transmission properties of a kind of layer-by-layer nonchiral metamaterial. Simulation results show that under certain off-normal incidence, giant circular polarization conversion occurs for both the right and left circularly polarized waves with a roughly 1 GHz operation band. Meanwhile, the copolarization transmissions are almost suppressed to zero, leading to the high purity circular polarization transformation. This phenomenon of giant circular polarization conversion is assumed to suffer from the strong magnetic response, which is illustrated by the surface current distributions of the structure. Compared with chiral structures, this nonchiral structure is easier to design and fabricate and is expected to be used as a promising circular polarization transformer.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  27. T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Circular dichroism in planar nonchiral metamaterial made of elliptical nanoholes array,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 26, 1275–1282 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Enhancement of circular dichroism by a planar non-chiral magnetic metamaterial,” J. Opt. 14, 085101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 11, 074009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18, 13425–13430 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20, 15882–15890 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterials as model systems for longitudinal and transverse magnetic coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 21233–21238 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Circular dichroism in planar nonchiral metamaterial made of elliptical nanoholes array,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 26, 1275–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Enhancement of circular dichroism by a planar non-chiral magnetic metamaterial,” J. Opt. 14, 085101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20, 15882–15890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18, 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. D. Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, and P. Ashburn, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 11, 074009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Yannopapas, “Circular dichroism in planar nonchiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 632–634 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterials as model systems for longitudinal and transverse magnetic coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 21233–21238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ai-Naib, I. A. I.

Akosman, A. E.

Alu, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Angelis, F. D.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. D. Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, and P. Ashburn, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ashburn, P.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. D. Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, and P. Ashburn, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. D. Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, and P. Ashburn, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, T.

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Circular dichroism in planar nonchiral metamaterial made of elliptical nanoholes array,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 26, 1275–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Enhancement of circular dichroism by a planar non-chiral magnetic metamaterial,” J. Opt. 14, 085101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C. T.

B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, M. J.

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Enhancement of circular dichroism by a planar non-chiral magnetic metamaterial,” J. Opt. 14, 085101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Circular dichroism in planar nonchiral metamaterial made of elliptical nanoholes array,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 26, 1275–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 11, 074009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C.

C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T.

Freymann, G. V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterials as model systems for longitudinal and transverse magnetic coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 21233–21238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
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Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
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X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
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J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
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C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
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J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
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A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
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Koschny, T.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151112 (2009).
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E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
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J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
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J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Lederer, F.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
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M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20, 15882–15890 (2012).
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C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. X.

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
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Liu, X. X.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
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Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
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B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
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C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
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J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
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C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
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B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
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R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
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B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
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R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18, 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 11, 074009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Shi, J. H.

J. H. Shi, Z. Zhu, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Tunable symmetric and asymmetric resonances in an asymmetrical split-ring metamatrial,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073522 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

Soukoulis, C.

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. B.

C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285, 2750–2754 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

Yannopapas, V.

Ye, Y.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.

C. Huang, X. Ma, M. Pu, G. Yi, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Dual-band 90° polarization rotaor using twisted split ring resonators array,” Opt. Commun. 291, 345–348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, “An ultrathin twist-structure polarization transformer based on fish-scale metallic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. T.

C. Wu, H. Li, Z. Wei, X. T. Yu, and C. T. Chan, “Theory and experimental realization of negative refraction in a metallic helix array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 247401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18, 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhao, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18, 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lukyanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 11, 074009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Schwaneche, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 167401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonplanar chiral metamaterials with negative index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the unit cell: (a) the front view of the unit cell, (b) the side view of the unit cell along Z axis, and (c) the side view of the unit cell along + Z axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the LCP and RCP waves at different incident angle α > 0 : (a)  α = + 45 ° , (b)  α = + 50 ° , (c)  α = + 55 ° , and (d)  α = + 60 ° .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distributions of surface currents at the incidence angle α = + 45 ° for the RCP wave incidence: (a)  f = 15 GHz , (b)  f = 16.25 GHz , (c)  f = 16.75 GHz , and (d)  f = 18 GHz . The blue arrows show the directions of the surface current in the first layer along the + Z direction, and the red ones show those in the second layer. The black arrows and dashed lines show the responses generated by the in-phase or antiphase currents between the two layers. P , electric response; m , magnetic response.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decomposition of the surface current distributions corresponding to Fig. 3(a): (a) first layer and (b) second layer. p , electric response; m , magnetic response.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of the LCP and RCP waves at different incident angle α < 0 : (a)  α = 45 ° , (b)  α = 50 ° , (c)  α = 55 ° , and (d)  α = 60 ° .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Directions of the Induced Electric and Magnetic Responses at Different Frequenciesa

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