Abstract

The precise distance measurement of fast-moving rough surfaces is important in several applications such as lathe monitoring. A nonincremental interferometer based on two mutually tilted interference fringe systems has been realized for this task. The distance is coded in the phase difference between the generated interference signals corresponding to the fringe systems. Large tilting angles between the interference fringe systems are necessary for a high sensitivity. However, due to the speckle effect at rough surfaces, different envelopes and phase jumps of the interference signals occur. At large tilting angles, these signals become dissimilar, resulting in a small correlation coefficient and a high measurement uncertainty. Based on a matching of illumination and receiving optics, the correlation coefficient and the phase difference estimation have been improved significantly. For axial displacement measurements of recurring rough surfaces, laterally moving with velocities of 5m/s, an uncertainty of 110 nm has been attained. For nonrecurring surfaces, a distance measurement uncertainty of 830 nm has been achieved. Incorporating the additionally measured lateral velocity and the rotational speed, the two-dimensional shape of rotating objects results. Since the measurement uncertainty of the displacement, distance, and shape is nearly independent of the lateral surface velocity, this technique is predestined for fast-rotating objects, such as crankshafts, camshafts, vacuum pump shafts, or turning parts of lathes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

P. Günther, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Non-incremental interferometric displacement measurement using a laser Doppler sensor with phase coding,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 1190–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler profile sensor with sub-micrometre position resolution for velocity and absolute radius measurements of rotating objects,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 627–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S.-H. Lu and C.-C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382–1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

Büttner, L.

P. Günther, T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler distance sensor using phase evaluation,” Opt. Express 17, 2611–2622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler profile sensor with sub-micrometre position resolution for velocity and absolute radius measurements of rotating objects,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 627–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Czarske, J.

P. Günther, R. Kuschmierz, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Distance measurement technique using tilted interference fringe systems and receiving optic matching,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4702–4704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Günther, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Non-incremental interferometric displacement measurement using a laser Doppler sensor with phase coding,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 1190–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Günther, T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler distance sensor using phase evaluation,” Opt. Express 17, 2611–2622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler profile sensor with sub-micrometre position resolution for velocity and absolute radius measurements of rotating objects,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 627–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorsch, R. G.

Fercher, A. F.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts, 2007).

Günther, P.

Gusev, M. E.

Häusler, G.

Herrmann, J.

Ida, T.

Kempe, A.

Krain, H.

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuschmierz, R.

Lee, C.-C.

S.-H. Lu and C.-C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382–1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.-H.

S.-H. Lu and C.-C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382–1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

Pfister, T.

P. Günther, R. Kuschmierz, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Distance measurement technique using tilted interference fringe systems and receiving optic matching,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4702–4704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Günther, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Non-incremental interferometric displacement measurement using a laser Doppler sensor with phase coding,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 1190–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Günther, T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler distance sensor using phase evaluation,” Opt. Express 17, 2611–2622 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler profile sensor with sub-micrometre position resolution for velocity and absolute radius measurements of rotating objects,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 627–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rösgen, T.

Schlamp, S.

Schodl, R.

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vry, U.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yamashita, K.

Yokota, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

S.-H. Lu and C.-C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382–1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, and J. Czarske, “Laser Doppler profile sensor with sub-micrometre position resolution for velocity and absolute radius measurements of rotating objects,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 627–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfister, L. Büttner, J. Czarske, H. Krain, and R. Schodl, “Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1693–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Günther, T. Pfister, and J. Czarske, “Non-incremental interferometric displacement measurement using a laser Doppler sensor with phase coding,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 1190–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts, 2007).

BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, Evaluation of Measurement Data—Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, 1st ed., JCGM 100:2008(E) (Joint Committee for Guides in Meterology, 2008), www.iso.org/sites/JCGM/GUM/JCGM100/C045315e-html/C045315e.html?csnumber=50461 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Arrangement for the generation of two mutually tilted interference fringe systems and the receiving of the scattered light from two different directions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experiment: (a) dependence of correlation coefficient ρ on the angle (ζ1+ζ2) between the two receiving angles in relation to the tilting angle ψ=10° of the two interference fringe systems. The correlation coefficient reaches the maximum at (ζ1+ζ2)=ψ (compare [12]). (b) Profile of the correlation coefficient ρ for ζ1=ζ2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Explanation of the increased correlation coefficient for receiving optics matching: if the scattered light signals are detected from different directions in a way that the two measuring channels exhibit the same bisector line between incident and receiving direction, the resulting phase profiles are the same at the two detectors. If the scattered light signals are received from one common direction, the phase characteristics of the detectors are different due to the different illumination directions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Setup of the LDDS with mutually tilted interference fringe systems and receiving optics matching with ζ1=ζ2=ψ/2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured statistical and (b) systematic deviations of the P-LDDS for displacement measurements for different surface roughnesses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup for the comparative measurements with the P-LDDS and the CCS.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Section of the measured distance values from the P-LDDS and the CCS and (b) mean distance values of both sensors for one revolution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured two-dimensional shape of the rotating aluminum cylinder in comparison with an ideal circle. The eccentricity of about 55 μm determined by the distance information of the P-LDDS is zoomed by a factor of 50.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ(z)=sz+ϕ0,
s=2πtan(ψ)/d.
σz=s1σϕ,
σz,tot=(σz2+|Δz|23)1/2.
R=v2πfrot.
ω(t)=v(t)R+Δr(t),
R(t)=(xy)=[R+Δr(t)](cos[φ(t)]sin[φ(t)]).

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