Abstract

In this paper, a vector Monte Carlo (MC) method is proposed to study the influence of atmospheric scattering on polarization qubits for satellite-based quantum communication. The vector MC method utilizes a transmittance method to solve the photon free path for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and random number sampling to determine whether the type of scattering is aerosol scattering or molecule scattering. Simulations are performed for downlink and uplink. The degrees and the rotations of polarization are qualitatively and quantitatively obtained, which agree well with the measured results in the previous experiments. The results show that polarization qubits are well preserved in the downlink and uplink, while the number of received single photons is less than half of the total transmitted single photons for both links. Moreover, our vector MC method can be applied for the scattering of polarized light in other inhomogeneous random media.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

I. T. Lima, A. Kalra, H. E. Hernández-Figueroa, and S. S. Sherif, “Fast calculation of multipath diffusive reflectance in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 692–700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

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1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
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1981 (1)

1969 (2)

Anisimova, E.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
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Bartel, S.

Bigio, I.

Bjork, G.

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Chen, Y.-A.

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Coté, G. L.

Eick, A.

Espinoza, P.

A. Sehat, J. Soderholm, G. Bjork, P. Espinoza, A. B. Klimov, and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033818 (2005).
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Freyer, J.

Herbst, T.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
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Hernández-Figueroa, H. E.

Hielscher, A.

Hielscher, A. H.

Höhn, D. H.

Huang, Y.-M.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
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X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
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X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Lima, I. T.

Liu, C.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.-S.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, V.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mech, A.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I.

Mehrübeoglu, M.

Mourant, J.

Myllylä, R.

Naylor, W.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, G.-S.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-W.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.-Z.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S.

Prahl, S. A.

Rakovi, M. J.

Rakovic, M. J.

Ramella-Roman, J.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Rastegar, S.

Ren, J.-G.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

A. Sehat, J. Soderholm, G. Bjork, P. Espinoza, A. B. Klimov, and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scheidl, T.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sehat, A.

A. Sehat, J. Soderholm, G. Bjork, P. Espinoza, A. B. Klimov, and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergeeva, E.

Shen, D.

Sherif, S. S.

Shoji, Y.

Soderholm, J.

A. Sehat, J. Soderholm, G. Bjork, P. Espinoza, A. B. Klimov, and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

Takenaka, H.

Toyoshima, M.

Tucker, J. W.

Ursin, R.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Y.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, X.

H. Yin, H. Jia, H. Zhang, X. Wang, S. Chang, and J. Yang, “Vectorized polarization-sensitive model of non-line-of-sight multiple-scatter propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2082–2085(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, B.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-P.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

Xu, P.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yin, H.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yin, H. Jia, H. Zhang, X. Wang, S. Chang, and J. Yang, “Vectorized polarization-sensitive model of non-line-of-sight multiple-scatter propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2082–2085(2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
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Yong, H.-L.

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[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Zheng, L.

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[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (2)

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

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A. Sehat, J. Soderholm, G. Bjork, P. Espinoza, A. B. Klimov, and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033818 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reference planes of the scattering. Old reference plane corresponds to prior to scattering, and new reference plane corresponds to after scattering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photon free path of multilayer atmospheric scattering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated backscattering Mueller matrix. All matrix elements have been normalized to the maximum intensity of m11. Each image is 3km×3km in size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization states of single photons traveling through atmosphere for (a) downlink and (b) uplink.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Three components of Stokes vectors for (a) downlink and (b) uplink.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distributions of χ for (a) downlink and (b) uplink.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Statistics of Polarization Degrees and Rotations of Received Single Photons

Equations (26)

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S=[IQUV]=[|Ex|2+|Ey|2|Ex|2|Ey|22ReExEy*2ImExEy*],
D=Q2+U2+V2/I,
χ=12tan1UQ.
S=[IQUV]=[m11m12m13m14m21m22m23m24m31m32m33m34m41m42m43m44]·[I0Q0U0V0]=M·S0.
M(θ)=[m11(θ)m12(θ)00m12(θ)m11(θ)0000m33(θ)m34(θ)00m34(θ)m33(θ)],
m11=(|S2|2+|S1|2)/2,m12=(|S2|2|S1|2)/2,m33=(S2*S1+S2S1*)/2,m34=i(S1S2*S2S1*)/2.
M(θ)=34[1+cos2θsin2θ00sin2θ1+cos2θ00002cosθ00002cosθ].
R(φ)=[10000cos(2φ)sin(2φ)00sin(2φ)cos(2φ)00001].
S=M·R(φ)·S0.
S=M(θn)·R(φn)M(θ2)·R(φ2)·M(θ1)·R(φ1)·S0,
l=ln(ξ)/k,
τ=I/I0=ekl,
τ=τnτn+1τn+m1τn+m.
ln(τ)=knt+i=1m1kn+ir+kn+ms.
t=(nz0)/cosγ,r=1/cosγ.
f=fn=ln(τ)/kn.
s=[ln(τ)knti=1m1kn+ir]/kn+m.
f=t+(m1)r+s.
ln(τ)=knt+i=1m1knir+knms.
t=[z0(n1)]/cosγ,r=1/cosγ.
I=m11(θ)I0+m12(θ)[Q0cos(2φ)+U0sin(2φ)].
0π02πP(θ,φ)dθdφ=1.
p=ksaerosolksaerosol+ksmolecule,
P(θ,φ)=s11(θ)I0+s12(θ)[Q0cos(2φ)+U0sin(2φ)].
P(θ,φ)=(1+cos2θ)I0sin2θ[Q0cos(2φ)+U0sin(2φ)].
W=ks/k,

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