Abstract

We present an optofluidic sensor based on an elastomeric two-dimensional (2D) grating integrated inside a hemispherical fluid chamber. A laser beam is diffracted before (reflection) and after (transmission) going through the grating and liquid in the dome chamber. The sensing mechanism is investigated and simulated with a finite-difference time-domain-based electromagnetic method. For the experiment, by analyzing the size, power, and shape of the 2D diffraction patterns, we can retrieve multiple parameters of the liquid, including the refractive index, pressure, and opacity with high sensitivity. We demonstrate that the glucose concentration can be monitored when mixed in a different concentrated phosphate-buffered saline solution. The free-solution binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA IgG is detected with this optical sensor. This low-cost, multifunctional, and reliable optofluidic sensor has the potential to be used as a monitor of biofluid, such as blood in hemodialysis.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Lagali, K. Burns, D. Zimmerman, and R. Munger, “Hemodialysis monitoring in whole blood using transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054003 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6641–6647 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ma, H. Liang, G. Chen, B. Poon, H. Jiang, and H. Yu, “Micro-strain sensing using wrinkled stiff thin films on soft substrates as tunable optical grating,” Opt. Express 21, 11994–12001 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1–6 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Guerrero, S. J. C. Oliva, and J. M. M. Indias, “Fluidic actuation of an elastomeric grating,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5812–5817 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Ren and S. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14, 8031–8036 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Zhang, and K. S. Chiang, “Micro-fiber-based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Park, K. Joo, S. Kang, and H. Kim, “A PDMS-coated optical fiber Bragg grating sensor for enhancing temperature sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 329–334 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Hirota and S. Shimizu, “A new competitive ELISA detects West Nile virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against the precursor-membrane protein of West Nile virus,” J. Virol. Methods 188, 132–138 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Zhang, and K. S. Chiang, “Micro-fiber-based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Hirota and S. Shimizu, “A new competitive ELISA detects West Nile virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against the precursor-membrane protein of West Nile virus,” J. Virol. Methods 188, 132–138 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Ma, H. Liang, G. Chen, B. Poon, H. Jiang, and H. Yu, “Micro-strain sensing using wrinkled stiff thin films on soft substrates as tunable optical grating,” Opt. Express 21, 11994–12001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, H. Tyagi, N. Y. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optofluidic refractive-index sensor in step-index fiber with parallel hollow micro-channel,” Opt. Express 19, 8200–8207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Park, K. Joo, S. Kang, and H. Kim, “A PDMS-coated optical fiber Bragg grating sensor for enhancing temperature sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 329–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. Coyne and G. M. O’Connor, “Fabrication of silicon-blazed phase diffractive gratings using grey scale gallium implantation with KOH anisotropic etch,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 085037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Yeh, “Real-time measurement of glucose concentration and average refractive index using a laser interferometer,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 666–670 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Lagali, K. Burns, D. Zimmerman, and R. Munger, “Hemodialysis monitoring in whole blood using transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14, 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2002 (1)

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6641–6647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ali, S. U.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

Arik, E.

D. Fourguette, E. Arik, and D. Wilson, “Optical MEMS-based sensor development with applications to microfluidics,” in BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology, M. Ferrari, R. Bashir, and S. Wereley, eds. (Springer, 2007), Chap. 17, pp. 349–370.

Ay, F.

Aydinli, A.

Baer, E.

Baumberg, J. J.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beadie, G.

Bornhop, D. J.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burns, K.

N. Lagali, K. Burns, D. Zimmerman, and R. Munger, “Hemodialysis monitoring in whole blood using transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Cheung, E. L.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Zhang, and K. S. Chiang, “Micro-fiber-based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cibula, E.

Coyne, E.

E. Coyne and G. M. O’Connor, “Fabrication of silicon-blazed phase diffractive gratings using grey scale gallium implantation with KOH anisotropic etch,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 085037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dana, A.

de Abajo, F. J. G.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ðonlagic, D.

Fourguette, D.

D. Fourguette, E. Arik, and D. Wilson, “Optical MEMS-based sensor development with applications to microfluidics,” in BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology, M. Ferrari, R. Bashir, and S. Wereley, eds. (Springer, 2007), Chap. 17, pp. 349–370.

Fox, D.

Gonzalez, R. L.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grzybowski, B.

B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, R. A.

Haag, R.

B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

Hirota, J.

J. Hirota and S. Shimizu, “A new competitive ELISA detects West Nile virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against the precursor-membrane protein of West Nile virus,” J. Virol. Methods 188, 132–138 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Indias, J. M. M.

Jackman, R. J.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6641–6647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, J.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Jones, R. D.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joo, K.

Kang, S.

Kazmierczak, T.

Kim, H.

Kim, P.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

Kocabas, A.

Kussrow, A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagali, N.

N. Lagali, K. Burns, D. Zimmerman, and R. Munger, “Hemodialysis monitoring in whole blood using transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Latham, J. C.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

Lee, L. K.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lepkowicz, R. S.

Liang, H.

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2004).

Liu, G. L.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T.

Maeda, R.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markov, D. A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M.

M. Misra, “The basics of hemodialysis equipment,” Hemodial. Int. 9, 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munger, R.

N. Lagali, K. Burns, D. Zimmerman, and R. Munger, “Hemodialysis monitoring in whole blood using transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuckolls, C.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, G. M.

E. Coyne and G. M. O’Connor, “Fabrication of silicon-blazed phase diffractive gratings using grey scale gallium implantation with KOH anisotropic etch,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 085037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oliva, S. J. C.

Park, C.

Perney, N. M. B.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponting, M.

Poon, B.

Prentiss, M. G.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qin, D.

B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Rogers, J. A.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sandrock, M. L.

Scharrer, M.

Schmidt, M. A.

Schueller, O. J. A.

Shepard, K. L.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

J. Hirota and S. Shimizu, “A new competitive ELISA detects West Nile virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against the precursor-membrane protein of West Nile virus,” J. Virol. Methods 188, 132–138 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

Sørensen, H. S.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317, 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorgenfrei, S.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, A.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, “Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, H.

Uebel, P.

Whitesides, G. M.

B. Grzybowski, D. Qin, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optical elements with deformable surface topographies: applications to force measurements, tunable light transmission and light focusing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86, 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6641–6647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, M. J.

Wilbur, J. L.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

D. Fourguette, E. Arik, and D. Wilson, “Optical MEMS-based sensor development with applications to microfluidics,” in BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology, M. Ferrari, R. Bashir, and S. Wereley, eds. (Springer, 2007), Chap. 17, pp. 349–370.

Wu, B.

Wu, H.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, H. Wu, S. U. Ali, J. Jiang, B. T. Cunningham, and G. L. Liu, “Nanoreplicated positive and inverted submicrometer polymer pyramid array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Nanophoton. 5, 053526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yeh, Y.

Y. Yeh, “Real-time measurement of glucose concentration and average refractive index using a laser interferometer,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 666–670 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, Y.

S. Sorgenfrei, C. Chiu, R. L. Gonzalez, Y. Yu, P. Kim, C. Nuckolls, and K. L. Shepard, “Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 126–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Zhang, and K. S. Chiang, “Micro-fiber-based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

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