Abstract

Previous studies of color matching found that Grassmann’s laws are not obeyed in the short-wavelength region when the method of maximum saturation matching is compared with Maxwell matching. The first experiment evaluated whether the discrepancy might be due to a discrimination matching range asymmetry around either the saturated or desaturated matches and concluded that asymmetry is not the dominant factor. The second and third experiments were designed to evaluate postreceptoral mechanisms. The results pointed to the conjunction of three factors as being the principal cause of the failures of Grassmann’s laws: the spatial inhomogeneity of the macular pigment distribution, the spatially dissimilar L/M-and S-cone distributions, and a change in the weightings of postreceptoral mechanisms mediating S-cone chromatic and L/M-cone luminance discriminations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Grassmann, “Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung,” Ann. Phys. 89, 60–84 (1853).
  2. J. Guild, “The colorimetric properties of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 230, 149–187 (1931).
  3. C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Blottiau, “Les defauts d’additivite de la colorimetrie trichromatique,” Revue d’Optique, Theorique et Instrumentale 26, 193–201 (1947).
  5. P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B66, 548–556 (1953).
  6. P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations II,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B67, 513–522 (1954).
  7. W. S. Stiles, “N. P. L. colour-matching investigation: addendum on additivity,” Opt. Acta 10, 229–232 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Crawford, “Colour matching and adaptation,” Vis. Res. 5, 71–78 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “The additivity of large-field colour matching functions,” Vis. Res. 7, 929–937 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “Large-field color matching and adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1653–1656 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science—Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 379–392.
  12. Q. Zaidi, “Adaptation and color matching,” Vis. Res. 26, 1925–1938 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. B. Goldstein and T. P. Williams, “Calculated effects of “screening pigments”,” Vis. Res. 6, 39–50 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. J. A. Dartnall, The Visual Pigments (Methuen, 1957).
  15. M. S. Banks, A. B. Sekuler, and S. J. Anderson, “Peripheral spatial vision: limits imposed by optics, photoreceptors, and receptor pooling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1775–1787 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red-green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708(1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Greef, “Die mikroskopische anatomie des sehnerven und der netzhaut,” Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde1–212 (1900).
  18. C. Yuodelis and A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. von Kries, “Uber die Funktion der Netzhautstabchen,” Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 9, 81–123 (1896).
  20. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Anomaloscope settings with added chromatic fields: the use of red light to reproduce protan function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 543–550 (1970).
  21. S. Burns and A. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area-effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, “High-level trichromatic color matching and the pigment-bleaching hypothesis,” Vis. Res. 20, 23–37 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521–538 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” 2F1972-17 (TNO Report, Institute for Perception, 1972).
  28. J. A. Castaño and H. G. Sperling, “Sensitivity of the blue-sensitivity cones across the central retina,” Vis. Res. 22, 661–673 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to combined chromaticity and luminance differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808–834 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. H. Crawford, “Just Perceptible Chromaticity Shifts,” in Proceedings of the International Color Association (AIC), COLOR 69 (Muster-Schmidt, 1970), pp. 302–311.
  33. A. J. Vingrys and L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. F. Carreño and J. M. Zoido, “The Weber fraction and asymmetries in luminance thresholds,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 330–334 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).
  36. J. C. Maxwell, “On the theory of compound colors and relations of the colors of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 150, 57–84 (1860).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. R. Ingling and B. A. Drum, “How neural adaptation changes chromaticity coordinates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 369–373 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. E. W. P. Tan, in Vision in the Ultraviolet (Drukkerij Elinkwijk, 1971), p. 54.
  40. T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  41. B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).
  42. R. W. Burnham, “A colorimeter for research in color perception,” Amer. J. Psych. 65, 603–608 (1952).
  43. R. W. Nygaard and T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vis. Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  44. D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission, International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, pp. 1–60 (1951).
  45. W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  47. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  48. R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  49. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  50. B. B. Lee, “Receptive field structure in the primate retina,” Vis. Res. 36, 631–644 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  51. J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 908–923.
  52. J. D. Moreland, “The effect of inert ocular pigments on anomaloscope matches and its reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12–18 (1972).
  53. J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of stimuli for trit-anomaloscopy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 162–166 (1978).
  54. D. B. Judd, “Specification of color tolerances at the National Bureau of Standards,” Amer. J. Psych. 52, 418–428 (1939).
  55. L. T. Sharpe and G. Wyszecki, “Proximity factor in color-difference evaluations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 40–49 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  56. R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  57. K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on subjective brightness,” Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 232–247 (1940).
  58. V. O’Brien, “Contour perception, illusion and reality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 112–119 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  59. T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).
  60. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  61. M. Hines, “Line spread function variation near the fovea,” Vis. Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  62. H. R. Wilson, “The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception,” Vis. Res. 16, 983–989 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  63. W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: The approach through increment threshold sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  64. E. P. T. Tyndall, “Chromaticity sensibility to wave-length difference as a function of purity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 15–24 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  65. J. D. Mollon and O. Estévez, “Tyndall’s paradox of hue discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 151–159 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  66. K. H. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  67. J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of a Rayleigh-type equation for the detection of tritanomaly,” Vis. Res. 19, 1369–1375 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  68. W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour threshold method,” in Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticas de la Vision (Union Intternationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, 1953), pp. 65–103.
  69. F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).
  70. L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  71. J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Psychophysical signatures associated with magnocellular and parvocellular pathway contrast gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2477–2486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  72. J. Pokorny, “Review: steady and pulsed pedestals, the how and why of post-receptoral pathway separation,” J. Vision 11, 7–23 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Pokorny, “Review: steady and pulsed pedestals, the how and why of post-receptoral pathway separation,” J. Vision 11, 7–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).

2006

2002

F. Carreño and J. M. Zoido, “The Weber fraction and asymmetries in luminance thresholds,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 330–334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Vingrys and L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

B. B. Lee, “Receptive field structure in the primate retina,” Vis. Res. 36, 631–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

1994

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

1993

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Banks, A. B. Sekuler, and S. J. Anderson, “Peripheral spatial vision: limits imposed by optics, photoreceptors, and receptor pooling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1775–1787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. D. Mollon and O. Estévez, “Tyndall’s paradox of hue discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 151–159 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

Q. Zaidi, “Adaptation and color matching,” Vis. Res. 26, 1925–1938 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuodelis and A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1982

J. A. Castaño and H. G. Sperling, “Sensitivity of the blue-sensitivity cones across the central retina,” Vis. Res. 22, 661–673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Nygaard and T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vis. Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, “High-level trichromatic color matching and the pigment-bleaching hypothesis,” Vis. Res. 20, 23–37 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of a Rayleigh-type equation for the detection of tritanomaly,” Vis. Res. 19, 1369–1375 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of stimuli for trit-anomaloscopy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 162–166 (1978).

1977

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

M. Hines, “Line spread function variation near the fovea,” Vis. Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wilson, “The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception,” Vis. Res. 16, 983–989 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe and G. Wyszecki, “Proximity factor in color-difference evaluations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 40–49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red-green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708(1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

J. D. Moreland, “The effect of inert ocular pigments on anomaloscope matches and its reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12–18 (1972).

1970

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Anomaloscope settings with added chromatic fields: the use of red light to reproduce protan function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 543–550 (1970).

1968

1967

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “The additivity of large-field colour matching functions,” Vis. Res. 7, 929–937 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

E. B. Goldstein and T. P. Williams, “Calculated effects of “screening pigments”,” Vis. Res. 6, 39–50 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

B. H. Crawford, “Colour matching and adaptation,” Vis. Res. 5, 71–78 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

W. S. Stiles, “N. P. L. colour-matching investigation: addendum on additivity,” Opt. Acta 10, 229–232 (1963).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1959

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: The approach through increment threshold sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958

1954

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations II,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B67, 513–522 (1954).

1953

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B66, 548–556 (1953).

1952

R. W. Burnham, “A colorimeter for research in color perception,” Amer. J. Psych. 65, 603–608 (1952).

1949

1947

F. Blottiau, “Les defauts d’additivite de la colorimetrie trichromatique,” Revue d’Optique, Theorique et Instrumentale 26, 193–201 (1947).

1940

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on subjective brightness,” Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 232–247 (1940).

1939

D. B. Judd, “Specification of color tolerances at the National Bureau of Standards,” Amer. J. Psych. 52, 418–428 (1939).

1933

1931

J. Guild, “The colorimetric properties of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 230, 149–187 (1931).

1900

R. Greef, “Die mikroskopische anatomie des sehnerven und der netzhaut,” Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde1–212 (1900).

1896

J. von Kries, “Uber die Funktion der Netzhautstabchen,” Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 9, 81–123 (1896).

1860

J. C. Maxwell, “On the theory of compound colors and relations of the colors of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 150, 57–84 (1860).
[CrossRef]

1853

H. Grassmann, “Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung,” Ann. Phys. 89, 60–84 (1853).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. J.

Arend, O.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Banks, M. S.

Baratta, G.

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blottiau, F.

F. Blottiau, “Les defauts d’additivite de la colorimetrie trichromatique,” Revue d’Optique, Theorique et Instrumentale 26, 193–201 (1947).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. R. J.

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. W.

R. W. Burnham, “A colorimeter for research in color perception,” Amer. J. Psych. 65, 603–608 (1952).

Burns, S.

Burns, S. A.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cao, D.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).

Carreño, F.

F. Carreño and J. M. Zoido, “The Weber fraction and asymmetries in luminance thresholds,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 330–334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castaño, J. A.

J. A. Castaño and H. G. Sperling, “Sensitivity of the blue-sensitivity cones across the central retina,” Vis. Res. 22, 661–673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on subjective brightness,” Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 232–247 (1940).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “Colour matching and adaptation,” Vis. Res. 5, 71–78 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Crawford, “Just Perceptible Chromaticity Shifts,” in Proceedings of the International Color Association (AIC), COLOR 69 (Muster-Schmidt, 1970), pp. 302–311.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, The Visual Pigments (Methuen, 1957).

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dorey, C. K.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Drum, B. A.

Elliott, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Elsner, A.

Estévez, O.

Frumkes, T. E.

R. W. Nygaard and T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vis. Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Goger, D. G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Goldstein, E. B.

E. B. Goldstein and T. P. Williams, “Calculated effects of “screening pigments”,” Vis. Res. 6, 39–50 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Grassmann, H.

H. Grassmann, “Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung,” Ann. Phys. 89, 60–84 (1853).

Greef, R.

R. Greef, “Die mikroskopische anatomie des sehnerven und der netzhaut,” Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde1–212 (1900).

Guild, J.

J. Guild, “The colorimetric properties of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 230, 149–187 (1931).

Hammond, B. R.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis and A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M.

M. Hines, “Line spread function variation near the fovea,” Vis. Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ingling, C. R.

Jagle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez del Barco, L.

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Specification of color tolerances at the National Bureau of Standards,” Amer. J. Psych. 52, 418–428 (1939).

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission, International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, pp. 1–60 (1951).

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Keilhauer, C.

Kerr, J.

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of a Rayleigh-type equation for the detection of tritanomaly,” Vis. Res. 19, 1369–1375 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of stimuli for trit-anomaloscopy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 162–166 (1978).

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knau, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamedica, A.

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, “Receptive field structure in the primate retina,” Vis. Res. 36, 631–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lozano, R. D.

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “Large-field color matching and adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1653–1656 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “The additivity of large-field colour matching functions,” Vis. Res. 7, 929–937 (1967).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Macaluso, C.

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, L. E.

A. J. Vingrys and L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, “On the theory of compound colors and relations of the colors of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 150, 57–84 (1860).
[CrossRef]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of a Rayleigh-type equation for the detection of tritanomaly,” Vis. Res. 19, 1369–1375 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of stimuli for trit-anomaloscopy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 162–166 (1978).

J. D. Moreland, “The effect of inert ocular pigments on anomaloscope matches and its reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12–18 (1972).

Nygaard, R. W.

R. W. Nygaard and T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vis. Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, V.

Oleari, C.

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. A.

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “Large-field color matching and adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1653–1656 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “The additivity of large-field colour matching functions,” Vis. Res. 7, 929–937 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, “Review: steady and pulsed pedestals, the how and why of post-receptoral pathway separation,” J. Vision 11, 7–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Psychophysical signatures associated with magnocellular and parvocellular pathway contrast gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2477–2486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red-green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708(1976).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Anomaloscope settings with added chromatic fields: the use of red light to reproduce protan function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 543–550 (1970).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 908–923.

Romero, J.

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, P.

Sekuler, A. B.

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe and G. Wyszecki, “Proximity factor in color-difference evaluations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 40–49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Psychophysical signatures associated with magnocellular and parvocellular pathway contrast gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2477–2486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red-green color mixture equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708(1976).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Anomaloscope settings with added chromatic fields: the use of red light to reproduce protan function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 543–550 (1970).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 908–923.

Snodderly, D. M.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, H. G.

J. A. Castaño and H. G. Sperling, “Sensitivity of the blue-sensitivity cones across the central retina,” Vis. Res. 22, 661–673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Staurenghi, G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, “High-level trichromatic color matching and the pigment-bleaching hypothesis,” Vis. Res. 20, 23–37 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “N. P. L. colour-matching investigation: addendum on additivity,” Opt. Acta 10, 229–232 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: The approach through increment threshold sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour threshold method,” in Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticas de la Vision (Union Intternationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, 1953), pp. 65–103.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science—Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 379–392.

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. E. W. P.

K. E. W. P. Tan, in Vision in the Ultraviolet (Drukkerij Elinkwijk, 1971), p. 54.

Trezona, P. W.

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations II,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B67, 513–522 (1954).

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B66, 548–556 (1953).

Tyndall, E. P. T.

van Norren, D.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vida, J.

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vingrys, A. J.

A. J. Vingrys and L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, “Uber die Funktion der Netzhautstabchen,” Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 9, 81–123 (1896).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” 2F1972-17 (TNO Report, Institute for Perception, 1972).

Weiter, J. J.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Williams, T. P.

E. B. Goldstein and T. P. Williams, “Calculated effects of “screening pigments”,” Vis. Res. 6, 39–50 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, “The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception,” Vis. Res. 16, 983–989 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Wooten, B. R.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, “High-level trichromatic color matching and the pigment-bleaching hypothesis,” Vis. Res. 20, 23–37 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe and G. Wyszecki, “Proximity factor in color-difference evaluations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 40–49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science—Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 379–392.

Yeh, T.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yuodelis, C.

C. Yuodelis and A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zaidi, Q.

Q. Zaidi, “Adaptation and color matching,” Vis. Res. 26, 1925–1938 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zele, A. J.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).

Zoido, J. M.

F. Carreño and J. M. Zoido, “The Weber fraction and asymmetries in luminance thresholds,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 330–334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amer. J. Psych.

R. W. Burnham, “A colorimeter for research in color perception,” Amer. J. Psych. 65, 603–608 (1952).

D. B. Judd, “Specification of color tolerances at the National Bureau of Standards,” Amer. J. Psych. 52, 418–428 (1939).

Ann. Phys.

H. Grassmann, “Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung,” Ann. Phys. 89, 60–84 (1853).

Color Res. Appl.

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Carreño and J. M. Zoido, “The Weber fraction and asymmetries in luminance thresholds,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 330–334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde

R. Greef, “Die mikroskopische anatomie des sehnerven und der netzhaut,” Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde1–212 (1900).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Anomaloscope settings with added chromatic fields: the use of red light to reproduce protan function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 543–550 (1970).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).

J. Comp. Neurol

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, J. Romero, and J. Vida, “Color-prediction discrepancies and differential chromaticity thresholds with photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 432–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision

J. Pokorny, “Review: steady and pulsed pedestals, the how and why of post-receptoral pathway separation,” J. Vision 11, 7–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.

J. D. Moreland, “The effect of inert ocular pigments on anomaloscope matches and its reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12–18 (1972).

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of stimuli for trit-anomaloscopy,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 162–166 (1978).

Opt. Acta

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, and D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “N. P. L. colour-matching investigation: addendum on additivity,” Opt. Acta 10, 229–232 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A

J. Guild, “The colorimetric properties of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 230, 149–187 (1931).

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London

J. C. Maxwell, “On the theory of compound colors and relations of the colors of the spectrum,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 150, 57–84 (1860).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

W. S. Stiles, “Color vision: The approach through increment threshold sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B66, 548–556 (1953).

P. W. Trezona, “Additivity of colour equations II,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London B67, 513–522 (1954).

Proc. R. Soc. B

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on subjective brightness,” Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 232–247 (1940).

Revue d’Optique, Theorique et Instrumentale

F. Blottiau, “Les defauts d’additivite de la colorimetrie trichromatique,” Revue d’Optique, Theorique et Instrumentale 26, 193–201 (1947).

Vis. Neurosci.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).

Vis. Res.

K. H. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland and J. Kerr, “Optimization of a Rayleigh-type equation for the detection of tritanomaly,” Vis. Res. 19, 1369–1375 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Hines, “Line spread function variation near the fovea,” Vis. Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wilson, “The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception,” Vis. Res. 16, 983–989 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jagle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Vingrys and L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Castaño and H. G. Sperling, “Sensitivity of the blue-sensitivity cones across the central retina,” Vis. Res. 22, 661–673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vis. Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: Data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Nygaard and T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vis. Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, “Receptive field structure in the primate retina,” Vis. Res. 36, 631–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, G. Baratta, A. Lamedica, and C. Macaluso, “Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes,” Vis. Res. 36, 3501–3505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Crawford, “Colour matching and adaptation,” Vis. Res. 5, 71–78 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Lozano and D. A. Palmer, “The additivity of large-field colour matching functions,” Vis. Res. 7, 929–937 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, “High-level trichromatic color matching and the pigment-bleaching hypothesis,” Vis. Res. 20, 23–37 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuodelis and A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zaidi, “Adaptation and color matching,” Vis. Res. 26, 1925–1938 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Goldstein and T. P. Williams, “Calculated effects of “screening pigments”,” Vis. Res. 6, 39–50 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg

J. von Kries, “Uber die Funktion der Netzhautstabchen,” Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 9, 81–123 (1896).

Other

H. J. A. Dartnall, The Visual Pigments (Methuen, 1957).

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” 2F1972-17 (TNO Report, Institute for Perception, 1972).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science—Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 379–392.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 908–923.

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Technical Committee No. 7 Report of Secretariat United States Commission, International Commission on Illumination, Twelfth Session, Stockholm, pp. 1–60 (1951).

K. E. W. P. Tan, in Vision in the Ultraviolet (Drukkerij Elinkwijk, 1971), p. 54.

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour threshold method,” in Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticas de la Vision (Union Intternationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, 1953), pp. 65–103.

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).

B. H. Crawford, “Just Perceptible Chromaticity Shifts,” in Proceedings of the International Color Association (AIC), COLOR 69 (Muster-Schmidt, 1970), pp. 302–311.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A source of retinal inhomogeneity at mid-to-long wavelengths. The photopigment absorption spectrum broadens with an increase in pathlength. The upper left panel shows an illustration of a path through a beaker of the rod photopigment rhodopsin. Light reaching each successive layer is the product of the incoming light and the transmission of the layers that precede them. At the final layer (6), most of the absorption is taking place in the tails of the extinction spectrum (Goldstein and Williams [13]). The lower left panel shows the relative fractional absorption (Dartnall [14]). As the effective optical density increases, the absorption spectrum broadens. Upper right panel: Cone outer-segment lengths are longest in the center of the fovea (data of Cheng-Yu and Van Sluyters, published by Banks, Sekuler & Anderson [15]). Lower right panel, Rayleigh match midpoints as a function of field diameter (Pokorny and Smith [16]). Average log G/R ratios for 10 observers. A color match made at a small field diameter appeared unacceptable when viewed in an 8° field (and visa versa). However, the 8° color matches appeared homogeneous to the observers despite the quantal mismatch at the field center.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sources of retinal inhomogeneity at short-to-mid wavelengths. Left panels: The macular pigment optical density is highest in the center of the fovea. Macular pigment density for a typical observer measured along the horizontal (filled squares) and vertical (open circles) meridians (Hammond, Wooten and Snodderly [26]). The lower panel shows the macular pigment density spectrum (Vos [27]). Right panels: The upper panel shows the distribution of S-cones and total cones as a function of eccentricity. The lower panel shows sensitivity profiles across the temporal retina at different test wavelengths (Castaño and Sperling [28]. The test field was 10’ in diameter with a 250 ms exposure duration. Steady adaptation was to a 572 nm, 104Td, 12° diameter field. The “blue” function represents an average of data from test wavelengths 410, 435, 460, and 488 nm. The “green” function is an average of data from test wavelengths 520, 546, 580, and 620 nm. The data were adjusted to correct for macular pigment and eye lens absorption.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Color matching results from experiment 1: The left panels show data of observer JX, the right show data of observer XML. The tristimulus values are plotted as a function of test light wavelength. Open circles show the results from the saturated matches; solid circles show the results from the desaturated matches in the presence of a 580 nm desaturating light. Error bars were ±1 standard error of the mean. Top: 650 nm color matching function; middle: 546 nm color matching function; lower: 460 nm color matching function.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Directions in which S-cone excitation, L/M-cone excitation, and luminance were varied to measure JNDs in MacLeod-Boynton cone excitation space. S/(L+M): S-cone excitation. L/(L+M): L/M-cone excitation. Top: Directions along in which only one of the variables was varied. Some of the directions along in which two of the variables were varied in tandem are also shown. Middle: Directions along in which two of the variables were varied in tandem. Lower: Directions along in which three of the variables were varied simultaneously.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results from experiment 2: The left panels show data of observer JX, the right show data of observer XML. The cube next to each graph has a dashed plane indicating the plane on which each data set was collected. Points indicated by arrows are the starting points; the other points are discrimination threshold points. Open circles show data for the saturated condition; Solid circles show data for the desaturated condition.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the luminances of the two sides of the bipartite field for the 435 nm test light match. The luminance of the desaturated matches included the luminance of the 580 nm desaturating light. Two sets of data for each observer are shown. Open circles show saturated matches; solid circles show the desaturated matches. The dashed line represents equal luminance between the two fields. The solid line is a linear fit to the data. The saturated match data fell closely on the equal luminance line. The desaturated match data were nearly perpendicular to the equal luminance line. Observers made precise luminance matches in the saturated condition but made precise hue matches in the desaturated condition.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Standard errors of the isomeric color match settings for observers JX and XML. Open bars are the results from the saturated matches; shaded bars are the results from the desaturated matches. The upper panel shows luminance error; lower panel shows wavelength error.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Tristimulus values for test light 435 nm for the 2° bipartite field (left), the 2° successive match (center) and the separated 1° fields (right). Open bars are the results from the saturated matches; shaded bars are the results from the desaturated matches. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean. The upper panel shows data of observer JX; lower panel shows data of observer XML.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QL1=QL2QM1=QM2QS1=QS2,

Metrics