Abstract

This paper presents results from an adaptive optics experiment in which an adaptive control loop augments a classical adaptive optics feedback loop. Closed-loop wavefront errors measured by a self-referencing interferometer are fed back to the control loops, which drive a membrane deformable mirror to correct the wavefront. The paper introduces new frequency-weighted deformable mirror modes used as the control channels and new wavefront sensor modes for analyzing the performance of the control loops. The corrected laser beam also is imaged by a diagnostic target camera. The experimental results show reduced closed-loop wavefront errors and correspondingly sharper diagnostic target images produced by the adaptive control loop as compared with the classical AO loop.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  14. Y.-T. Liu and J. S. Gibson, “AO with adaptive filtering and control,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 3176–3179.
  15. T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  28. T. A. Rhoadarmer and J. D. Barchers, “Noise analysis for complex field estimation using a self-referencing interferometer wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 215–227 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C.-Y. Chung, K.-C. Cho, C.-C. Chang, C.-H. Lin, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Adaptive-optics system with liquid-crystal phase-shift interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3409–3414 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  32. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping (Wiley, 1998).
  33. S. Monirabbasi, “Adaptive control of turbulence-induced wavefront errors in AO,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (2009).
  34. N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1990).

2009 (4)

S. Monirabbasi and J. S. Gibson, “Adaptive control in an adaptive optics experiment with simulated turbulence-induced optical wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746608-1–746608-11 (2009).

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and C. Kulcsár, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307–1325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Monirabbasi, “Adaptive control of turbulence-induced wavefront errors in AO,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (2009).

N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. S. Gibson and Yu-tai Liu, “Adaptive control in adaptive optics for directed energy systems,” Opt. Eng. 46, 046601-1–046601-13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinnen, M. Verhaegen, and N. Doelman, “Exploiting the spatio-temporal correlation in adaptive optics using data-driven H2-optimal control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1714–1725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C.-Y. Chung, K.-C. Cho, C.-C. Chang, C.-H. Lin, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Adaptive-optics system with liquid-crystal phase-shift interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3409–3414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

2005 (1)

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y.-T. Liu and J. S. Gibson, “AO with adaptive filtering and control,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 3176–3179.

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and Neil Chen, “Adaptive optics with a new modal decomposition of actuator and sensor spaces,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 4619–4625.

2000 (2)

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront correction by use of adaptive filtering and control,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2525–2538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chang and J. S. Gibson, “Parallel control loops based on spatial subband processing for adaptive optics,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 2113–2117.

1999 (2)

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront reconstruction by adaptive filtering and control,” in Proceedings of 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 761–766.

P. Yeh, and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

1998 (4)

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping (Wiley, 1998).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

B. L. Ellerbroek and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Real-time adaptive optimization of wave-front reconstruction algorithms for closed-loop adaptive-optical systems,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 1174–1183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Lloyd-Hart and P. McGuire, “Spatio-temporal prediction for adaptive optics wavefront reconstructors,” in Adaptive Optics Vol. 54 of ESO Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1996), pp. 95–101.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

1995 (2)

S.-B. Jiang and J. S. Gibson, “An unwindowed multichannel lattice filter with orthogonal channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 43, 2831–2842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Efron, SLM Technology (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

1994 (3)

1990 (2)

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1990).

1983 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1983).

Barchers, J. D.

T. A. Rhoadarmer and J. D. Barchers, “Noise analysis for complex field estimation using a self-referencing interferometer wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 215–227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boeke, B. R.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1983).

Boyer, C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Burton, D. R.

Chang, C.-C.

C.-Y. Chung, K.-C. Cho, C.-C. Chang, C.-H. Lin, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Adaptive-optics system with liquid-crystal phase-shift interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3409–3414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and Neil Chen, “Adaptive optics with a new modal decomposition of actuator and sensor spaces,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 4619–4625.

C.-C. Chang and J. S. Gibson, “Parallel control loops based on spatial subband processing for adaptive optics,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 2113–2117.

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront correction by use of adaptive filtering and control,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2525–2538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront reconstruction by adaptive filtering and control,” in Proceedings of 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 761–766.

Chemla, F.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Chen, N.

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

Chen, Neil

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and Neil Chen, “Adaptive optics with a new modal decomposition of actuator and sensor spaces,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 4619–4625.

Chen, S.-J.

Cho, K.-C.

Chung, C.-Y.

Cleis, R. A.

Conan, J.-M.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and C. Kulcsár, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307–1325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Doelman, N.

Efron, U.

U. Efron, SLM Technology (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Fontanella, J. C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Fugate, R. Q.

Fusco, T.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Gaffard, J. P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Gdeisat, M. A.

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping (Wiley, 1998).

Gibson, J. S.

N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Monirabbasi and J. S. Gibson, “Adaptive control in an adaptive optics experiment with simulated turbulence-induced optical wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746608-1–746608-11 (2009).

P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gibson and Yu-tai Liu, “Adaptive control in adaptive optics for directed energy systems,” Opt. Eng. 46, 046601-1–046601-13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

Y.-T. Liu and J. S. Gibson, “AO with adaptive filtering and control,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 3176–3179.

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and Neil Chen, “Adaptive optics with a new modal decomposition of actuator and sensor spaces,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 4619–4625.

C.-C. Chang and J. S. Gibson, “Parallel control loops based on spatial subband processing for adaptive optics,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 2113–2117.

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront correction by use of adaptive filtering and control,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2525–2538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront reconstruction by adaptive filtering and control,” in Proceedings of 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 761–766.

S.-B. Jiang and J. S. Gibson, “An unwindowed multichannel lattice filter with orthogonal channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 43, 2831–2842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Gu, C.

P. Yeh, and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

J. W. Hardy, “Adaptive optics” Sci. Am. 270, 60–65 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).

Herraez, M. A.

Higgins, C. H.

Hinnen, K.

Jagourel, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Jelonek, M. P.

Jiang, S.-B.

S.-B. Jiang and J. S. Gibson, “An unwindowed multichannel lattice filter with orthogonal channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 43, 2831–2842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Klein, L. M.

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

Kulcsár, C.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and C. Kulcsár, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307–1325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Lalor, M. J.

Lange, W. J.

Lena, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Lim, J. S.

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1990).

Lin, C.-H.

Liu, Y.-T.

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

Y.-T. Liu and J. S. Gibson, “AO with adaptive filtering and control,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 3176–3179.

Liu, Yu-tai

J. S. Gibson and Yu-tai Liu, “Adaptive control in adaptive optics for directed energy systems,” Opt. Eng. 46, 046601-1–046601-13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

M. Lloyd-Hart and P. McGuire, “Spatio-temporal prediction for adaptive optics wavefront reconstructors,” in Adaptive Optics Vol. 54 of ESO Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1996), pp. 95–101.

McGuire, P.

M. Lloyd-Hart and P. McGuire, “Spatio-temporal prediction for adaptive optics wavefront reconstructors,” in Adaptive Optics Vol. 54 of ESO Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1996), pp. 95–101.

Merkle, F.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Monirabbasi, S.

S. Monirabbasi and J. S. Gibson, “Adaptive control in an adaptive optics experiment with simulated turbulence-induced optical wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746608-1–746608-11 (2009).

S. Monirabbasi, “Adaptive control of turbulence-induced wavefront errors in AO,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (2009).

Montri, J.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Moroney, J. F.

Oliker, M. D.

Orzechowski, P. K.

P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Arancibia, N. O.

N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and C. Kulcsár, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307–1325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Pitsianis, N. P.

Plemmons, R. J.

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping (Wiley, 1998).

Rabaud, D.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Raynaud, H.-F.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

Rhoadarmer, T. A.

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

T. A. Rhoadarmer and J. D. Barchers, “Noise analysis for complex field estimation using a self-referencing interferometer wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 215–227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Real-time adaptive optimization of wave-front reconstruction algorithms for closed-loop adaptive-optical systems,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 1174–1183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

Rousset, G.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Ruane, R. E.

Slavin, A. C.

Spinhirne, J. M.

Swindle, D. W.

Tsao, T.-C.

N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

Van Loan, C.

Verhaegen, M.

Welsh, B.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

Wild, W. J.

Winker, D. M.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1983).

Wynia, J. M.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Yen, W.-C.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, “First diffraction limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. (1)

P. K. Orzechowski, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Optimal suppression of laser beam jitter by high-order RLS adaptive control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 16, 255–267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

S.-B. Jiang and J. S. Gibson, “An unwindowed multichannel lattice filter with orthogonal channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 43, 2831–2842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. (1)

N. O. Pérez Arancibia, J. S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao, “Frequency-weighted minimum-variance adaptive control of laser beam jitter,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14, 337–348 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. S. Gibson and Yu-tai Liu, “Adaptive control in adaptive optics for directed energy systems,” Opt. Eng. 46, 046601-1–046601-13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. Monirabbasi and J. S. Gibson, “Adaptive control in an adaptive optics experiment with simulated turbulence-induced optical wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746608-1–746608-11 (2009).

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 227–235 (2005).

B. L. Ellerbroek and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Real-time adaptive optimization of wave-front reconstruction algorithms for closed-loop adaptive-optical systems,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 1174–1183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Rhoadarmer, L. M. Klein, J. S. Gibson, N. Chen, and Y.-T. Liu, “Adaptive control and filtering for closed-loop adaptive-optical wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060E-1–63060E-12 (2006),

T. A. Rhoadarmer and J. D. Barchers, “Noise analysis for complex field estimation using a self-referencing interferometer wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 215–227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Adaptive optics” Sci. Am. 270, 60–65 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics: wavefront reconstruction by adaptive filtering and control,” in Proceedings of 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (IEEE, 1999), pp. 761–766.

M. Lloyd-Hart and P. McGuire, “Spatio-temporal prediction for adaptive optics wavefront reconstructors,” in Adaptive Optics Vol. 54 of ESO Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1996), pp. 95–101.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

C.-C. Chang and J. S. Gibson, “Parallel control loops based on spatial subband processing for adaptive optics,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 2113–2117.

J. S. Gibson, C.-C. Chang, and Neil Chen, “Adaptive optics with a new modal decomposition of actuator and sensor spaces,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 4619–4625.

Y.-T. Liu and J. S. Gibson, “AO with adaptive filtering and control,” in American Control Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 3176–3179.

MZA Associates Corporation, Albuquerque, NM, http://www.mza.com, WaveTrain.

U. Efron, SLM Technology (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

P. Yeh, and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1983).

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1990).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping (Wiley, 1998).

S. Monirabbasi, “Adaptive control of turbulence-induced wavefront errors in AO,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (2009).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the digital control loops for AO.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the adaptive control loop.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of the 31 DM modes discussed in Subsection 7A.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of selected WFS modes discussed in Subsection 7B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Performance of the classical AO loop with 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 31 DM modes for Turbulence 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results for open-loop (top trace, red online), classical AO loop only (middle trace, green online), and adaptive control (bottom trace, blue online). Left, RMS wavefront error in units of wavelength. Right, average intensity over five-pixel diamond.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean (over time, in CCD counts) steady-state target intensity profiles. For Turbulence 1, frames 1100 through 2400 are used. For Turbulence 2, frames 2600 through 3900 are used.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Steady-state RMS values of WFS modal sequences, normalized by the RMS value over time and all modes. Top, Turbulence 1. Bottom, Turbulence 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Power spectral densities of selected WFS modal sequences for Turbulence 1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power spectral densities of selected WFS modal sequences for Turbulence 2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for WaveTrain BLAT01 Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMS Values of Steady-State Wavefront Errors in Units of Wavelength a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean Values of Steady-State Intensities on Target Camera

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d i = a v i 2 ,
v i = round ( c i + v b 2 ) , v b = 180 255 2 2 ,
d i = a ( c i + v b 2 ) ,
θ ϕ 0 = arctan [ 2 I ( π 2 ) I ( 0 ) I ( π ) I ( 0 ) I ( π ) ] .
y = y b + w + η Γ c ,
e Γ = y y b + Γ c .
E 0 Γ U = I ,
G ̂ ( z ) = K z + K α .
w ̂ = w ̃ = z 1 G ̂ ( z ) ( y b + w + η )
e ̂ = e ,
F ( z ) = l = 0 L F l z l ,
U T A T A U = Λ ,
A U ( : , i ) U ( : , i ) = λ i 1 2 , i = 1 , 31 .
B T A T A U ( : , 1 ) = 0 .
B T A T A B X = B T B X Λ
U ( : , 2 : 31 ) = B X .
F X = Z Σ Y T ,
( V F ) T F V = Σ T Σ .

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