Abstract

Display manufacturers require new data and computational models that consider the effect of ambient illumination in order to develop higher-quality displays. In this study, typical variations of small-sized mobile LCDs that exist in the real world were first simulated using a device characterization technique. In addition, psychophysical attributes (e.g., naturalness, clearness, sharpness, contrast, colorfulness, and preference) affecting the image quality evaluation process were analyzed. Consequently, naturalness and clearness were found to be the most statistically significant psychophysical attributes for modeling image quality. As the ambient-illumination level was increased, the image quality was exponentially impaired and the contribution of clearness increased.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Engeldrum, Psychometric Scaling: a Toolkit for Imaging Systems Development (Imcotek Press, 2000).
  2. Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
    [PubMed]
  3. Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment (Morgan & Claypool, 2006).
  4. M. D. Fairchild, “Measuring and modeling image quality,” presented at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science Industrial Associates Program, Rochester, N.Y., October 18, 1999.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. M. Zhang and B. A. Wandell, “A spatial extension to CIELAB for digital color image reproduction,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 731-734 (1996).
  8. W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (Robert E. Krieger, 1985).
  9. Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.
  10. Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Susstrunk, R. Buckley, and S. Swen, “Standard RGB color spaces,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 1999), pp. 127-134.
  12. D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Bartleson, “Visual measurements,” in Optical Radiation Measurements, C.J.Bartleson and F.Grum, eds. (Academic, 1984).
  14. International Telecommunications Union (ITU), “Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures,” ITU-R Rec. BT. 500-10 (ITU, 2002).
  15. S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. G. J. Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (SPIE, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, “Perceived image contrast and observer preference. II. Empirical modelling of perceived image contrast and observer preference data,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 494-508 (2003).
  18. Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge Dictionaries Online: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, http://dictionary.cambridge.org.
  19. S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika 52, 591-611 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. J. Kim, “Developing image quality metrics of liquid crystal displays: internal reference approach,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2007).
  21. R. M. Evans, Eye, Film, and Camera in Color Photography (Wiley, 1959).
  22. S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, and M. R. Pointer, “The influence of the relative luminance of the surround on the perceived quality of an image on a large display,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference, (IS&T/SID, 2007), pp. 157-162.

2007 (1)

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, “Perceived image contrast and observer preference. II. Empirical modelling of perceived image contrast and observer preference data,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 494-508 (2003).

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

X. M. Zhang and B. A. Wandell, “A spatial extension to CIELAB for digital color image reproduction,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 731-734 (1996).

1989 (1)

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika 52, 591-611 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (SPIE, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartleson, C. J.

C. J. Bartleson, “Visual measurements,” in Optical Radiation Measurements, C.J.Bartleson and F.Grum, eds. (Academic, 1984).

Blommaert, F. J. J.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment (Morgan & Claypool, 2006).

Buckley, R.

S. Susstrunk, R. Buckley, and S. Swen, “Standard RGB color spaces,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 1999), pp. 127-134.

Calabria, A. J.

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, “Perceived image contrast and observer preference. II. Empirical modelling of perceived image contrast and observer preference data,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 494-508 (2003).

Calhoun, C. S.

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, V.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Choe, W.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, and M. R. Pointer, “The influence of the relative luminance of the surround on the perceived quality of an image on a large display,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference, (IS&T/SID, 2007), pp. 157-162.

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, H.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engeldrum, P. G.

P. G. Engeldrum, Psychometric Scaling: a Toolkit for Imaging Systems Development (Imcotek Press, 2000).

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, Eye, Film, and Camera in Color Photography (Wiley, 1959).

Fairchild, M. D.

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, “Perceived image contrast and observer preference. II. Empirical modelling of perceived image contrast and observer preference data,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 494-508 (2003).

M. D. Fairchild, “Measuring and modeling image quality,” presented at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science Industrial Associates Program, Rochester, N.Y., October 18, 1999.

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Y. J. Kim, “Developing image quality metrics of liquid crystal displays: internal reference approach,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2007).

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Kwak, Y.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Luo, M. R.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, and M. R. Pointer, “The influence of the relative luminance of the surround on the perceived quality of an image on a large display,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference, (IS&T/SID, 2007), pp. 157-162.

Park, D.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, and M. R. Pointer, “The influence of the relative luminance of the surround on the perceived quality of an image on a large display,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference, (IS&T/SID, 2007), pp. 157-162.

Post, D. L.

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. S.

S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika 52, 591-611 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Susstrunk, S.

S. Susstrunk, R. Buckley, and S. Swen, “Standard RGB color spaces,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 1999), pp. 127-134.

Swen, S.

S. Susstrunk, R. Buckley, and S. Swen, “Standard RGB color spaces,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 1999), pp. 127-134.

Torgerson, W. S.

W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (Robert E. Krieger, 1985).

Wandell, B. A.

X. M. Zhang and B. A. Wandell, “A spatial extension to CIELAB for digital color image reproduction,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 731-734 (1996).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment (Morgan & Claypool, 2006).

Westland, S.

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

Wilk, M. B.

S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika 52, 591-611 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Yendrikhovskij, S. N.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang and B. A. Wandell, “A spatial extension to CIELAB for digital color image reproduction,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 731-734 (1996).

Biometrika (1)

S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika 52, 591-611 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Colour reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 52-67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, “Perceived image contrast and observer preference. II. Empirical modelling of perceived image contrast and observer preference data,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 494-508 (2003).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, Y. Kwak, D. Park, and C. Kim, “Image-colour quality modelling under various surround conditions for a 2-inch mobile transmissive LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

X. M. Zhang and B. A. Wandell, “A spatial extension to CIELAB for digital color image reproduction,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 731-734 (1996).

Other (15)

W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (Robert E. Krieger, 1985).

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, V. Cheung, S. Westland, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Image colour-quality modelling for mobile LCDs,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 14th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 2006), pp. 159-164.

P. G. Engeldrum, Psychometric Scaling: a Toolkit for Imaging Systems Development (Imcotek Press, 2000).

Y. J. Kim, M. R. Luo, P. Rhodes, W. Choe, S. Lee, and C. Kim, “Affective attributes in image quality of a mobile LCD,” in Proceedings of IS&T's Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV'2006) (IS&T, 2006), pp. 494-498.
[PubMed]

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment (Morgan & Claypool, 2006).

M. D. Fairchild, “Measuring and modeling image quality,” presented at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science Industrial Associates Program, Rochester, N.Y., October 18, 1999.

R. W. G. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Susstrunk, R. Buckley, and S. Swen, “Standard RGB color spaces,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 7th Color Imaging Conference (IS&T/SID, 1999), pp. 127-134.

C. J. Bartleson, “Visual measurements,” in Optical Radiation Measurements, C.J.Bartleson and F.Grum, eds. (Academic, 1984).

International Telecommunications Union (ITU), “Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures,” ITU-R Rec. BT. 500-10 (ITU, 2002).

Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge Dictionaries Online: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, http://dictionary.cambridge.org.

P. G. J. Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (SPIE, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, “Developing image quality metrics of liquid crystal displays: internal reference approach,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2007).

R. M. Evans, Eye, Film, and Camera in Color Photography (Wiley, 1959).

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, and M. R. Pointer, “The influence of the relative luminance of the surround on the perceived quality of an image on a large display,” in Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference, (IS&T/SID, 2007), pp. 157-162.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test images for training the model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test images for testing the model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of IQm prediction versus subjective data ( r = 0.984 ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio of weighting factors between dark and other ambient-illumination levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of IQm prediction versus subjective data under the three illumination levels (overcast, bright, and very bright) ( r = 0.990 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of IQm prediction versus subjective data for testing the model ( r = 0.859 ) .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Levels of Physical Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Definition of Bartleson's [13] Categories

Tables Icon

Table 3 Intercomparison between the Seven Psychophysical IQ Attributes a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Weight of Naturalness and Clearness under the Three Viewing Conditions

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I Q m = 0.763 N + 0.409 C 1.09 .
T = 2 N ,
I = 2 MaxBit 2 N 1 ,
u ¯ j k = 1 N i = 1 N u i j k ,
I Q m = 0.769 N + 0.231 C ,
C L m = 0.787 S + 0.213 C T ,
w n = 0.663 + 0.106 e 10 5 E 0.131 ,
w c = 1 w n ,
I Q m = w n N + w c C .

Metrics