Abstract

A theory is presented to analyze images of anisotropic fine-scale surfaces. We investigate the estimates of illuminance flow by using structure tensors. For anisotropic surfaces, both the gradient-based and the Hessian-based tensors will yield deviations from the true illumination orientation. Our theory predicts this deviation. To show the use of this theory, an algorithm is derived that uses both tensors simultaneously to compensate for small amounts of anisotropy. Experimental results with rendered surfaces are shown to conform well to our theory.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Gershun, "The light field," P. Moon and G. Timoshenko, translators, J. Math. Phys. (Cambridge, Mass.) 18, 51-151 (1939).
  2. B. M. ter Haar Romeny, L. Florack, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Viergever, "Scale-space: its natural operators and differential invariants," in Information Processing in Medical Imaging, A.C. F.Colchester and D.J.Hawkes, eds., Vol. 511 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 1991) pp. 239-255.
  3. D. G. Lowe, "Object recognition from local scale-invariant features," in The Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) Vol. 2, pp. 1150-1157.
  4. J. Bigün, T. Bigün, and K. Nilsson, "Recognition by symmetry derivatives and the generalized structure tensor," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1590-1605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Kriegman and P. N. Belhumeur, "What is the set of images of an object under all possible illumination conditions?" Int. J. Comput. Vis. 28, 245-260 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Li, C. Wang, D. Xu, B. Luo, and Z. Chen, A Study on Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Methods Based on Multiple Eigenspaces, Vol. 3947 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 131-136.
  7. J. J. Koenderink and S. C. Pont, "Irradiation direction from texture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1875-1882 (2003).
  8. S. C. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, "Irradiation orientation from obliquely viewed texture," in Deep Structure, Singularities, and Computer Vision, O.F.Olsen, L.Florack, and A.Kuijper, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 205-210.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Chantler, M. Petrou, A. Penirsche, M. Schmidt and G. McGunnigle, "Classifying surface texture while simultaneously estimating illumination direction," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 62, 83-96 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Bigün, T. Bigün, and K. Nilsson, "Recognition by symmetry derivatives and the generalized structure tensor," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1590-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. N. Belhumeur, D. Kriegman, and A. Yuille, "The bas-relief ambiguity," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 33-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. J. Kriegman and P. N. Belhumeur, "What is the set of images of an object under all possible illumination conditions?" Int. J. Comput. Vis. 28, 245-260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Chantler and G. Delguste, "lluminant-tilt estimation from images of isotropic texture," IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 144, 213-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. J. Chantler, "Why illuminant direction is fundamental to texture analysis." IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 142, 199-206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Q. Zheng and R. Chellappa, "Estimation of illuminant direction, albedo and shape from shading," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 680-702 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

P. Kube and A. Pentland, "On the imaging of fractal surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704-707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

M. Berry and V. Hannay, "Umbilic points on Gaussian random surfaces," J. Phys. A 10, 1809-1821 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, "The statistical analysis of a random moving surface," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 249, 321-364 (1956).

1939 (1)

A. Gershun, "The light field," P. Moon and G. Timoshenko, translators, J. Math. Phys. (Cambridge, Mass.) 18, 51-151 (1939).

IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. (2)

M. J. Chantler, "Why illuminant direction is fundamental to texture analysis." IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 142, 199-206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Chantler and G. Delguste, "lluminant-tilt estimation from images of isotropic texture," IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 144, 213-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (3)

P. Kube and A. Pentland, "On the imaging of fractal surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704-707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Bigün, T. Bigün, and K. Nilsson, "Recognition by symmetry derivatives and the generalized structure tensor," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1590-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng and R. Chellappa, "Estimation of illuminant direction, albedo and shape from shading," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 680-702 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (3)

D. J. Kriegman and P. N. Belhumeur, "What is the set of images of an object under all possible illumination conditions?" Int. J. Comput. Vis. 28, 245-260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Chantler, M. Petrou, A. Penirsche, M. Schmidt and G. McGunnigle, "Classifying surface texture while simultaneously estimating illumination direction," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 62, 83-96 (2005).

P. N. Belhumeur, D. Kriegman, and A. Yuille, "The bas-relief ambiguity," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 33-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (Cambridge, Mass.) (1)

A. Gershun, "The light field," P. Moon and G. Timoshenko, translators, J. Math. Phys. (Cambridge, Mass.) 18, 51-151 (1939).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. A (1)

M. Berry and V. Hannay, "Umbilic points on Gaussian random surfaces," J. Phys. A 10, 1809-1821 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, "The statistical analysis of a random moving surface," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 249, 321-364 (1956).

Other (12)

J. Bigün and G. H. Granlund, "Optimal orientation detection of linear symmetry," in Proceedings of the IEEE First International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 1987), pp. 433-438.

O. Drbohlav and M. Chantler, "Illumination-invariant texture classification using single training images," in Texture 2005: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Texture Analysis and Synthesis (IEEE, 2005), pp. 31-36.

M. Varma and A. Zisserman, "Estimating illumination direction from textured images," in IEEE Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2004. CVPR 2004 (IEEE, 2004), pp. I-179-I-186.

B. M. ter Haar Romeny, L. Florack, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Viergever, "Scale-space: its natural operators and differential invariants," in Information Processing in Medical Imaging, A.C. F.Colchester and D.J.Hawkes, eds., Vol. 511 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 1991) pp. 239-255.

D. G. Lowe, "Object recognition from local scale-invariant features," in The Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) Vol. 2, pp. 1150-1157.

W. Li, C. Wang, D. Xu, B. Luo, and Z. Chen, A Study on Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Methods Based on Multiple Eigenspaces, Vol. 3947 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2005), pp. 131-136.

S. C. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, "Irradiation orientation from obliquely viewed texture," in Deep Structure, Singularities, and Computer Vision, O.F.Olsen, L.Florack, and A.Kuijper, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 205-210.

Y. Zhang and Y. H. Yang, "Illuminant Direction Determination for Multiple Light Sources," in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recogintion, 2000. Proceedings (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 269-276.

M. Brooks and B. Horn, "Shape and source from shading," Proceedings of the 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, A.K.Joshi, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1985), 932-936.

M. Chantler, Photex Photometric Image Database, http://www.macs. hw. ac. uk/texturelab/resources/databases/Photex/index. htm (October 2007).

A. Pentland, "The visual inference of shape: computation from local features," Ph.D. dissertation (MIT, 1982).

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, "Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance" (National Bureau of Standards, 1977).

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