Abstract

A technique is described for the calculation of the intensity of the light diffracted by the occulter of an externally occulted solar coronagraph. This technique can be applied to an occulter of generic shape, but the attention is here focused on a specific application; that is, the case of a giant space solar coronagraph, in which the occulter is located at 100m from the telescope aperture. By means of the code developed, it has been possible to simulate the effects of various shapes of the occulter edge with the aim of analyzing in detail the best apodization for the coronagraph. The results obtained show that an occulter with a circular serrated edge allows a remarkable reduction of the amount of diffracted light on the coronagraph’s entrance aperture with respect to a simpler circular disk case.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. S. Koutchmy and M. Belmahdi, "Improved measurements of scattered light level behind occulting systems," J. Opt. 18, 265-269 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. J. E. Harvey and J. L. Forgham, "The spot of Arago: New relevance for an old phenomenon," Am. J. Phys. 52, 243-247 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Mielenz, "Numerical evaluation of diffraction integrals," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 581-587 (2000).
  18. F. Frassetto and G. Naletto, "Diffraction effects on very large space instruments: a detailed analysis to solar coronagraphy," Proc. SPIE 5901, 347-353 (2005).
  19. D. S. Burch, "Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture," Am. J. Phys. 53, 255-260 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Dauger, "Simulation and study of Fresnel diffraction for arbitrary two-dimensional apertures," Comput. Phys. 10, 591-604 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. Cooper, "Numerical integration of diffraction integrals for a circular aperture," Optik (Stuttgart) 113, 293-298 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Bout, P. Lamy, A. Maucherat, C. Colin, and A. Llebaria, "Experimental study of external occulters for the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph 2:LASCO-C2," Appl. Opt. 39, 3955-3962 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Clemmow, "A method for the exact solution of a class of two-dimensional diffraction problems," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 286-308 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Rinard, "Large-scale diffraction patterns from circular objects," Am. J. Phys. 44, 70-76 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. D. Purcell and M. J. Koomen, "Coronagraph with improved scattered light properties," Report of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Progress (1962).

2005 (2)

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

F. Frassetto and G. Naletto, "Diffraction effects on very large space instruments: a detailed analysis to solar coronagraphy," Proc. SPIE 5901, 347-353 (2005).

2002 (1)

I. Cooper, "Numerical integration of diffraction integrals for a circular aperture," Optik (Stuttgart) 113, 293-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Bout, P. Lamy, A. Maucherat, C. Colin, and A. Llebaria, "Experimental study of external occulters for the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph 2:LASCO-C2," Appl. Opt. 39, 3955-3962 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Howard, J. D. Moses, and D. G. Socker, "Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)," Proc. SPIE 4139, 259-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Mielenz, "Numerical evaluation of diffraction integrals," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 581-587 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Mielenz, "Algorithms for Fresnel diffraction at rectangular and circular apertures," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 497-509 (1998).

1996 (2)

E. Shirley and R. Datla, "Optimally toothed apertures for reduced diffraction," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 745-753 (1996).

D. Dauger, "Simulation and study of Fresnel diffraction for arbitrary two-dimensional apertures," Comput. Phys. 10, 591-604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Koutchmy, "Space-borne coronagraphy," Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95-143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Koutchmy and M. Belmahdi, "Improved measurements of scattered light level behind occulting systems," J. Opt. 18, 265-269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. S. Burch, "Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture," Am. J. Phys. 53, 255-260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. E. Harvey and J. L. Forgham, "The spot of Arago: New relevance for an old phenomenon," Am. J. Phys. 52, 243-247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Lenskii, "Theoretical assessment of efficiency of coronagraph external occulting systems," Astron. Zh. 58, 648-659 (1981).

1978 (1)

B. Fort, C. Morel, and G. Spaak, "The reduction of scattered light in an external occulting disk coronagraph," Astron. Astrophys. 63, 243-246 (1978).

1976 (1)

P. Rinard, "Large-scale diffraction patterns from circular objects," Am. J. Phys. 44, 70-76 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

J. D. Purcell and M. J. Koomen, "Coronagraph with improved scattered light properties," Report of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Progress (1962).

1951 (1)

P. Clemmow, "A method for the exact solution of a class of two-dimensional diffraction problems," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 286-308 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

1930 (1)

B. Lyot, "La couronne solaire étudiée en dehors des éclipses," C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 191, 834-837 (1930).

Allegra, A.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antonucci, E.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, J.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Auchère, F.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Ballegooijen, A. V.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Basile, G.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bedford, D. K.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Belmahdi, M.

S. Koutchmy and M. Belmahdi, "Improved measurements of scattered light level behind occulting systems," J. Opt. 18, 265-269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benna, C.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bohlin, D.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

Bout, M.

Bout, M. V.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, G. E.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brusa, R.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burch, D. S.

D. S. Burch, "Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture," Am. J. Phys. 53, 255-260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ciaravella, A.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clemmow, P.

P. Clemmow, "A method for the exact solution of a class of two-dimensional diffraction problems," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 286-308 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Colin, C.

Cooper, I.

I. Cooper, "Numerical integration of diffraction integrals for a circular aperture," Optik (Stuttgart) 113, 293-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cranmer, S.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cyr, C. S.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daigneau, P.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Datla, R.

E. Shirley and R. Datla, "Optimally toothed apertures for reduced diffraction," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 745-753 (1996).

Dauger, D.

D. Dauger, "Simulation and study of Fresnel diffraction for arbitrary two-dimensional apertures," Comput. Phys. 10, 591-604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davila, J.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, E.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dere, K. P.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esser, R.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

Eyles, C. J.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fineschi, S.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forgham, J. L.

J. E. Harvey and J. L. Forgham, "The spot of Arago: New relevance for an old phenomenon," Am. J. Phys. 52, 243-247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fort, B.

B. Fort, C. Morel, and G. Spaak, "The reduction of scattered light in an external occulting disk coronagraph," Astron. Astrophys. 63, 243-246 (1978).

Fowler, W.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

F. Frassetto and G. Naletto, "Diffraction effects on very large space instruments: a detailed analysis to solar coronagraphy," Proc. SPIE 5901, 347-353 (2005).

Gardner, L.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geiss, J.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, S.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckler, G.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golub, L.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Habbal, S.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey and J. L. Forgham, "The spot of Arago: New relevance for an old phenomenon," Am. J. Phys. 52, 243-247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. A.

R. A. Howard, J. D. Moses, and D. G. Socker, "Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)," Proc. SPIE 4139, 259-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jhabvala, M.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, J.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koomen, M. J.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell and M. J. Koomen, "Coronagraph with improved scattered light properties," Report of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Progress (1962).

Korendyke, C. M.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koutchmy, S.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

S. Koutchmy, "Space-borne coronagraphy," Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95-143 (1988).
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S. Koutchmy and M. Belmahdi, "Improved measurements of scattered light level behind occulting systems," J. Opt. 18, 265-269 (1987).
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Lamy, P.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

M. Bout, P. Lamy, A. Maucherat, C. Colin, and A. Llebaria, "Experimental study of external occulters for the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph 2:LASCO-C2," Appl. Opt. 39, 3955-3962 (2000).
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Lamy, P. L.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
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Lenskii, A.

A. Lenskii, "Theoretical assessment of efficiency of coronagraph external occulting systems," Astron. Zh. 58, 648-659 (1981).

Livi, S.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Llebaria, A.

M. Bout, P. Lamy, A. Maucherat, C. Colin, and A. Llebaria, "Experimental study of external occulters for the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronograph 2:LASCO-C2," Appl. Opt. 39, 3955-3962 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lühe, O. V. D.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, "La couronne solaire étudiée en dehors des éclipses," C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 191, 834-837 (1930).

Maucherat, A.

Michels, D. J.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K.

K. Mielenz, "Numerical evaluation of diffraction integrals," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 581-587 (2000).

K. Mielenz, "Algorithms for Fresnel diffraction at rectangular and circular apertures," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 497-509 (1998).

Modigliani, A.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morel, C.

B. Fort, C. Morel, and G. Spaak, "The reduction of scattered light in an external occulting disk coronagraph," Astron. Astrophys. 63, 243-246 (1978).

Moses, D.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moses, J. D.

R. A. Howard, J. D. Moses, and D. G. Socker, "Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)," Proc. SPIE 4139, 259-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

F. Frassetto and G. Naletto, "Diffraction effects on very large space instruments: a detailed analysis to solar coronagraphy," Proc. SPIE 5901, 347-353 (2005).

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, J. G.

Nicolosi, P.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noci, G.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, G.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Panasyuk, A.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pernechele, C.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, G.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prado, J.-Y.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Purcell, J. D.

J. D. Purcell and M. J. Koomen, "Coronagraph with improved scattered light properties," Report of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Progress (1962).

Raymond, J.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinard, P.

P. Rinard, "Large-scale diffraction patterns from circular objects," Am. J. Phys. 44, 70-76 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Romoli, M.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwenn, R.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, E.

E. Shirley and R. Datla, "Optimally toothed apertures for reduced diffraction," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 745-753 (1996).

Siegmund, O.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simnett, G. M.

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Socker, D.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Socker, D. G.

R. A. Howard, J. D. Moses, and D. G. Socker, "Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)," Proc. SPIE 4139, 259-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spaak, G.

B. Fort, C. Morel, and G. Spaak, "The reduction of scattered light in an external occulting disk coronagraph," Astron. Astrophys. 63, 243-246 (1978).

Spadaro, D.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strachan, L.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vial, J.-C.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Vivès, S.

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Wang, D.

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

Wood, B.

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (3)

D. S. Burch, "Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture," Am. J. Phys. 53, 255-260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harvey and J. L. Forgham, "The spot of Arago: New relevance for an old phenomenon," Am. J. Phys. 52, 243-247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Rinard, "Large-scale diffraction patterns from circular objects," Am. J. Phys. 44, 70-76 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

B. Fort, C. Morel, and G. Spaak, "The reduction of scattered light in an external occulting disk coronagraph," Astron. Astrophys. 63, 243-246 (1978).

Astron. Zh. (1)

A. Lenskii, "Theoretical assessment of efficiency of coronagraph external occulting systems," Astron. Zh. 58, 648-659 (1981).

C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. (1)

B. Lyot, "La couronne solaire étudiée en dehors des éclipses," C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 191, 834-837 (1930).

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. Dauger, "Simulation and study of Fresnel diffraction for arbitrary two-dimensional apertures," Comput. Phys. 10, 591-604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

S. Koutchmy and M. Belmahdi, "Improved measurements of scattered light level behind occulting systems," J. Opt. 18, 265-269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (3)

K. Mielenz, "Algorithms for Fresnel diffraction at rectangular and circular apertures," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 497-509 (1998).

E. Shirley and R. Datla, "Optimally toothed apertures for reduced diffraction," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 745-753 (1996).

K. Mielenz, "Numerical evaluation of diffraction integrals," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 581-587 (2000).

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

I. Cooper, "Numerical integration of diffraction integrals for a circular aperture," Optik (Stuttgart) 113, 293-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

P. Clemmow, "A method for the exact solution of a class of two-dimensional diffraction problems," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 286-308 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

F. Frassetto and G. Naletto, "Diffraction effects on very large space instruments: a detailed analysis to solar coronagraphy," Proc. SPIE 5901, 347-353 (2005).

R. A. Howard, J. D. Moses, and D. G. Socker, "Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)," Proc. SPIE 4139, 259-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gardner, J. Kohl, S. Cranmer, S. Fineschi, L. Golub, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, R. Howard, D. Moses, D. Socker, D. Wang, R. Fisher, J. Davila, C. S. Cyr, G. Noci, M. Romoli, G. Tondello, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, and L. Poletto, "The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer mission (ASCE)," Proc. SPIE 3764, 134-146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Vivès, P. Lamy, F. Auchère, J.-C. Vial, S. Koutchmy, J. Arnaud, J.-Y. Prado, F. Frassetto, and G. Naletto, "Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission," Proc. SPIE 5901, 305-315 (2005).

Sol. Phys. (2)

G. E. Brueckner, R. A. Howard, M. J. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. G. Socker, K. P. Dere, P. L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M. V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G. M. Simnett, D. K. Bedford, and C. J. Eyles, "The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)--visible light coronal imaging and spectroscopy," Sol. Phys. 162, 357-402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohl, R. Esser, L. Gardner, S. Habbal, P. Daigneau, E. Dennis, G. Nystrom, A. Panasyuk, J. Raymond, P. Smith, L. Strachan, A. V. Ballegooijen, G. Noci, S. Fineschi, M. Romoli, A. Ciaravella, A. Modigliani, M. Huber, E. Antonucci, C. Benna, S. Giordano, G. Tondello, P. Nicolosi, G. Naletto, C. Pernechele, D. Spadaro, G. Poletto, S. Livi, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Geiss, J. Timothy, G. Gloeckler, A. Allegra, G. Basile, R. Brusa, B. Wood, O. Siegmund, W. Fowler, R. Fisher, and M. Jhabvala, "Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory," Sol. Phys. 162, 313-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

S. Koutchmy, "Space-borne coronagraphy," Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95-143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

J. D. Purcell and M. J. Koomen, "Coronagraph with improved scattered light properties," Report of U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Progress (1962).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the reference systems used and of the definition of the various parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of some Fresnel zones relative to a point P on the instrument aperture whose projection on the occulter plane is P . The light gray area shows the kernel of the invariant zones; the dark gray area shows the projection of the instrument aperture on the occulter plane. In addition, some Fresnel zones intersected by the occulter edge are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integration domain shown in gray for the n th Fresnel zone, which is intersected by the occulter edge B ( ϑ ) . This domain is included between the edge of the ( n 1 ) th Fresnel zone r ( n 1 , ϑ , x ) and the f ( n , ϑ , x ) function. The outlined areas are regions to be excluded from the integration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Plots of both theoretical and calculated normalized intensity of light diffracted by a 1 m diameter circular occulter located at 100 m in front of the instrument aperture. The difference between the two plots, which are indistinguishable in (A), is magnified in (B).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sampling segments for the calculation of the total power entering the instrument aperture in the cases of a circular (A) and a serrated-edge (B) occulter. In the latter case, the sampling is actually realized over a fan of radial segments (C).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Projection on the primary plane of the main direction of diffraction for the circular (left side) and serrated-edge (right side) occulters. The scale adopted is not representative of a real case.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of the distribution of the light diffracted by a circular occulter in the simulated ASPIICS case along the radial direction. The reported values are those obtained assuming a 0.5 mm long linear (that is, with a null width) sampling element.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Values of I * for serrated-edge occulters as a function of the number of teeth N. Tooth height of 1 cm (circles) and 0.5 cm (squares) have been considered.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Values of I * for toothed occulters as a function of the tooth height Δ. The case of N = 22 teeth has been assumed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histogram of the distribution of the light diffracted by an occulter with N = 6 and Δ = 1 cm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histogram of the distribution of the light diffracted by occulters having Δ = 1 cm and N = 22 , 100, and 200.

Equations (14)

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E Σ ( x , y ) = A o i λ R 2 T Σ ( a , b ) K ( γ ) exp ( i k d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 ) d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 d a d b ,
E Σ ( x , y ) = A 0 i λ R 2 Σ K ( γ ) exp ( i k d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 ) d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 d a d b ,
R ( n ) = ( d + n λ 2 ) 2 d 2 n d λ ,
E Σ ( x , y ) = A 0 i λ n = 1 Z ( n ) T Σ ( a , b ) K ( γ ) exp ( i k d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 ) d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 d a d b .
E Σ ( x , y ) = A 0 [ e i k d 1 i λ n = 1 Σ Z ( n ) K ( γ ) exp ( i k d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 ) d 2 + ( a x ) 2 + ( b y ) 2 d a d b ] ,
n d λ = r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ ,
r ( n , ϑ , x ) = x cos ϑ + x 2 cos 2 ϑ x 2 + n d λ .
E n ( x , 0 ) = A 0 i λ 0 2 π r ( n 1 , ϑ , x ) f ( n , ϑ , x ) K ( γ ) r exp ( i k d 2 + r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ ) d 2 + r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ d r d ϑ ,
f ( n , ϑ , x ) = sup { r ( n 1 , ϑ , x ) ; inf [ r ( n , ϑ , x ) ; B ( ϑ ) ] } .
K [ γ ( r , ϑ , x ) ] = 1 2 cos ( arctan r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ d ) + 1 2 ,
E Σ ( x , 0 ) = A 0 [ e i k d 1 i λ n = 1 N m = 1 w 2 π ( m 1 ) w 2 π m w r ( n 1 , ϑ , x ) f ( n , ϑ , x ) r exp ( i k d 2 + r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ ) d 2 + r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos ϑ d r d ϑ ] ,
I * = E A I ( r , ϑ ) r d r d ϑ E A I r d r d ϑ = E A I ( r , ϑ ) r d r d ϑ I α E A .
I circocc. * = 0 R I ( r , 0 ) r d r 0 R I r d r = 0 R I ( r , 0 ) r d r I 0 R r d r ,
r edge ( ϑ ) = ρ + Δ { 1 + 2 sup [ ϑ N 2 π + floor ( ϑ N 2 π ) ; ϑ N 2 π ceil ( ϑ N 2 π ) ] } .

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