Abstract

We quantify the effects on scanning laser ophthalmoscope image quality of controlled amounts of scattered light, confocal pinhole diameter, and age. Optical volumes through the optic nerve head were recorded for a range of pinhole sizes in 12 subjects (1964  years). The usefulness of various overall metrics in quantifying the changes in fundus image quality is assessed. For registered and averaged images, we calculated signal-to-noise ratio, entropy, and acutance. Entropy was best able to distinguish differing image quality. The optimum confocal pinhole diameter was found to be 50μm (on the retina), providing improved axial resolution and image quality under all conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Liang and D. R. Williams, "Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).
  6. P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).
  7. T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  8. J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Westheimer and J. Liang, "Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2652-2657 (1994).
  10. Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).
  14. A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.
  15. R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME28, 488-492 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.
  17. M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. J. Roorda, "Double pass reflections in the human eye," Ph.D. thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1996).
  19. M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. J. Donnelly III and A. Roorda, "Optimal pupil size in the human eye for axial resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2010-2015 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Wilson, "The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging system," in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J.B.Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 167-182.
  23. M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.
  26. K. M. Muth, "The effect of entrance beam diameter and position within the pupil on the image quality of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," MSc thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1998).
  27. J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Ozolinsh and G. Papelba, "Eye cataract simulation using polymer dispersed liquid crystal scattering obstacles," Ferroelectrics 304, 1037-1042/207-212 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.
  33. American National Standards Institute, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers," Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, 2000).
  34. J.W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9-75.
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.
    [PubMed]
  36. R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. C. Howell, Statistical Methods for Psychology (Duxbury/Thomson Learning, 2002).
  38. K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996).
  39. T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the human eye," J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558-578 (1966).
  41. J. Liang and G. Westheimer, "Optical performances of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411-1416 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  42. P. Artal and R. Navarro, "Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246-249 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, "Effects of aging in retinal image quality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656-1662 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. Ozolinsh and G. Papelba, "Eye cataract simulation using polymer dispersed liquid crystal scattering obstacles," Ferroelectrics 304, 1037-1042/207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

W. J. Donnelly III and A. Roorda, "Optimal pupil size in the human eye for axial resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2010-2015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

J. Liang and D. R. Williams, "Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang and G. Westheimer, "Optical performances of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411-1416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

P. Artal and R. Navarro, "Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246-249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, "Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2652-2657 (1994).

A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

1990 (1)

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME28, 488-492 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1966 (1)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the human eye," J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Alim, O. A.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Atkinson, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

Beckman, C.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.

Berry, C.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Blair, N. P.

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bond-Taylor, L.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.

Burke, M. A.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the human eye," J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Campbell, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

Campbell, M. C. W.

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.

Carlini, A. R.

Castleman, K. R.

K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996).

Cheng, X.

Choong, Y. F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. J.

S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.

de Jong, P. T.

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Waard, P. W.

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desautels, J. E.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Eddins, S. L.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.
[PubMed]

El-Faramawy, N. M.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferro, M.

Forrester, J. V.

A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujikado, T.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garden, V.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.
[PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J.W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9-75.
[CrossRef]

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the human eye," J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

Hirohara, Y.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

Howell, D. C.

D. C. Howell, Statistical Methods for Psychology (Duxbury/Thomson Learning, 2002).

Hudson, C.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME28, 488-492 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ijspeert, J. K.

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikaunieks, G.

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.

Irak, I.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, C. J.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, U.

A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.

Kuroda, T.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lindblom, B.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, N.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

Manivannan, A.

A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mihashi, T.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, I.

Morgan, J. E.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munger, R.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

Muth, K.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.

Muth, K. M.

K. M. Muth, "The effect of entrance beam diameter and position within the pupil on the image quality of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," MSc thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1998).

Navarro, R.

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ninomiya, S.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

Norrby, S.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

North, R. V.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oshika, T.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozolinsh, M.

M. Ozolinsh and G. Papelba, "Eye cataract simulation using polymer dispersed liquid crystal scattering obstacles," Ferroelectrics 304, 1037-1042/207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.

Papelba, G.

M. Ozolinsh and G. Papelba, "Eye cataract simulation using polymer dispersed liquid crystal scattering obstacles," Ferroelectrics 304, 1037-1042/207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

Plesch, A.

A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.

Pomerantzeff, O.

Poonja, S.

Rakebrandt, F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangayyan, R. M.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rappl, W.

A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Borja, F.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

Roorda, A. J.

A. J. Roorda, "Double pass reflections in the human eye," Ph.D. thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1996).

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.

Schrodel, C.

A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.

Shahidi, M.

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, P. F.

A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, R. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sjostrand, J.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sluckin, T. J.

S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stargard, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

Thibos, L. N.

van den Berg, T. J.

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, S. T.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, K.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vohnsen, B.

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME28, 488-492 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

J. Liang and G. Westheimer, "Optical performances of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411-1416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, "Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2652-2657 (1994).

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, T.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, "The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging system," in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J.B.Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 167-182.

Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.
[PubMed]

Zangwill, L.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Zelkha, R.

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, N. Maeda, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Wavefront analysis in eyes with nuclear or cortical cataract," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Br. J. Ophthamol. (2)

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. Ozolinsh and G. Papelba, "Eye cataract simulation using polymer dispersed liquid crystal scattering obstacles," Ferroelectrics 304, 1037-1042/207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME28, 488-492 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (4)

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "Intraocular light scattering in age-related cataracts," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618-625 (1992).

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, "Optical aberrations and the aging eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 63-77 (2003).

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, "Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2652-2657 (1994).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-index-mismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the human eye," J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558-578 (1966).

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Effect of aging on ocular light scatter and higher order aberrations," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598-602 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. J. Cox, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, "Theory of dielectric and optical properties of PDLC films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 301-320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optom. Vision Sci. (2)

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, "Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes," Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

A. Manivannan, P. F. Sharp, and J. V. Forrester, "Performance-measurements of an infrared digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Physiol. Meas. 15, 317-324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ijspeert, P. W. de Waard, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, "The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age and pigmentation," Vision Res. 30, 699-707 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

A. J. Roorda, "Double pass reflections in the human eye," Ph.D. thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1996).

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 55-69.

A. Plesch, U. Klingbeil, W. Rappl, and C. Schrodel, "Scanning ophthalmic imaging," in Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, 1990), pp. 23-33.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, "The effect of entrance beam location on image quality of CSLO images," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series(Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 56-59.

K. M. Muth, "The effect of entrance beam diameter and position within the pupil on the image quality of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," MSc thesis (University of Waterloo, Canada, 1998).

T. Wilson, "The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging system," in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J.B.Pawley, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 167-182.

D. C. Howell, Statistical Methods for Psychology (Duxbury/Thomson Learning, 2002).

K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996).

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and G. Ikaunieks, "Optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal to be used on visual testing," in Proceedings of ICO Topical Meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (ICO, 2006), pp. 276-278.

American National Standards Institute, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers," Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, 2000).

J.W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9-75.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.
[PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the CSLO. Labels are as follows: ND, neutral density filter; BS, beam splitter; L, lenses; T, telescopes; M, mirror; galvo, galvanometer mirror; PDLC, scatter generator; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image quality metrics plotted as a function of the number of image frames averaged for the 29   year old participant. The solid curve represents the best fit regression. For SNR, the predicted rate of change for additive noise is also shown (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaged CSLO images obtained for a 29   year old participant with the 400 μ m pinhole at the reference plane ( 0 D ) with no induced scatter on three different occasions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Series of through-focus CSLO images using a 400 μ m imaging pinhole for a 29   year old participant. The top row of images was obtained with no induced scatter. A scattering device ( S = 0.2 ) was placed conjugate to the entrance pupil of the eye during the acquisition of images in the bottom row.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CSLO images ( 0 D ) of a 29   year old participant with varying imaging pinhole diameters with no induced scatter (top row) and in the presence of a scatter level S = 0.2 (bottom row). The small circles on the left side of the images with induced scatter are artifacts from the PDLC cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

For no induced scatter, each of the three metrics for a 29   year old participant was plotted versus the lens power used for optical sectioning with four different imaging pinhole diameters. Squares, 100 μ m ; upright triangles, 200 μ m ; circles, 400 μ m ; downward triangles, 600 μ m .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

For the 100, 200, and 600 μ m imaging pinholes, entropy (shown on the same scale) for a 29   year old participant was plotted versus the lens power used in the optical sectioning for varying amounts of scattered light. Triangles, S = 0.2 ; squares, S = 1.0 ; circles, S = 1.2 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatterplots comparing SNR, entropy, and acutance for all imaging conditions. Lines are significant linear regressions. The insert in the plot of entropy versus acutance shows the negative correlation for the metrics calculated for images with different numbers of averaged frames.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) SNR versus pinhole for the three different levels of scatter. Each point is the average across all eyes and lenses for each pinhole and scatter setting. Error bars represent the standard error. The circles and solid line represent the absence of induced scatter. The squares (with dashed line) and triangles (with dashed–dotted line) represent the presence of increasing induced scatter at the 1.0 and 0.2 PDLC settings, respectively. (b) SNR plotted versus lens power (D) used in the optical sectioning. Each point is the average across all eyes, pinholes, and scatter settings for each lens. Error bars represent the standard error.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Entropy versus lens power for the three different scatter conditions, with separate graphs for each imaging pinhole diameter. Each point is the average across all eyes for each imaging condition. Error bars represent the standard error. The circles and solid curve represent the absence of induced scatter. The squares (with dashed curve) and triangles (with dashed-dotted curve) represent the presence of increasing induced scatter at the 1.0 and 0.2 PDLC settings, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Image quality metrics as a function of age. Each point is the average across all pinholes, lenses, and scatter settings for each eye. Error bars represent the standard error.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Entropy plotted versus age for the 100 μ m imaging pinhole in the absence of induced scatter (circles) and for two scatter settings (squares, S = 1.0 ; triangles, S = 0.2 ). The lines represent the significant linear regressions.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Entropy = x y I ( x , y ) 2 ln [ I ( x , y ) 2 ] .
Acutance = C x y [ I ( x , y ) I ( x 1 , y ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x + 1 , y ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x 1 , y 1 ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x + 1 , y 1 ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x 1 , y + 1 ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x + 1 , y + 1 ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x , y 1 ) 2 + I ( x , y ) I ( x , y + 1 ) 2 ] .

Metrics