Abstract

The characteristics of a radar cross section (RCS) of partially convex targets with large sizes up to five wavelengths in free space and random media are studied. The nature of the incident wave is an important factor in remote sensing and radar detection applications. I investigate the effects of beam wave incidence on the performance of RCS, drawing on the method I used in a previous study on plane-wave incidence [Waves Random Media 12, 387 (2002) ]. A beam wave can be considered a plane wave if the target size is smaller than the beam width. Therefore, to have a beam wave with a limited spot on the target, the target size should be larger than the beam width (assuming E-wave incidence wave polarization. The effects of the target configuration, random medium parameters, and the beam width on the laser RCS and the enhancement in the radar cross section are numerically analyzed, resulting in the possibility of having some sort of control over radar detection using beam wave incidence.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Keller and W. Streifer, "Complex rays with an application to Gaussian beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 40-43 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ikuno, "Calculation of far-scattered fields by the method of stationary phase," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-27, 199-202 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. L. Bennett and H. Mieras, "Time domain scattering from open thin conducting surfaces," Radio Sci. 16, 1231-1239 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Q. Meng and M. Tateiba, "Radar cross sections of conducting elliptic cylinders embedded in strong continuous random media," Waves Random Media 6, 335-345 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Strong backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets in random media," Waves Random Media 11, 21-32 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets of large sizes in continuous random media for E-wave incidence," Waves Random Media 12, 387-397 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "An indirect estimate of RCS of conducting cylinder in random medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 2, 173-176 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. El-Ocla, "Backscattering from conducting targets in continuous random media for circular polarization," Waves Random Complex Media 15, 91-99 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Yu. A. Kravtsov and A. I. Saishev, "Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media," Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494-508 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Jakeman, "Enhanced backscattering through a deep random phase screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1638-1648 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ishimaru, "Backscattering enhancement: from radar cross sections to electron and light localizations to rough surface scattering," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 33, 7-11 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. I. Mishchenko, "Enhanced backscattering of polarized light from discrete random media: calculation in exactly the backscattering direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 978-982 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Cerveny, "Expansion of a plane wave into Gaussian beams," Stud. Geophys. Geod. 46, Suppl 43-54 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Gardner and R. E. Collin, "Scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder: physical optics and exact solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 642-652 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech, 1992).
  17. O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).
  18. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE Press, 1997).
  19. V. H. Rumsey, "Reaction concept in electromagnetic theory," Phys. Rev. 94, 1483-1491 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Tateiba, "Numerical analysis of nonreciprocity for spatial coherence and spot dancing in random media," Radio Sci. 17, 1531-1535 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex ray interpretation of reflection from concave-convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1260-1271 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex rays in transient scattering from smooth targets with inflection points," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1272-1280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. El-Ocla, "Backscattering from conducting targets in continuous random media for circular polarization," Waves Random Complex Media 15, 91-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. S. Gardner and R. E. Collin, "Scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder: physical optics and exact solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 642-652 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "An indirect estimate of RCS of conducting cylinder in random medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 2, 173-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Cerveny, "Expansion of a plane wave into Gaussian beams," Stud. Geophys. Geod. 46, Suppl 43-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets of large sizes in continuous random media for E-wave incidence," Waves Random Media 12, 387-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Strong backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets in random media," Waves Random Media 11, 21-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. Q. Meng and M. Tateiba, "Radar cross sections of conducting elliptic cylinders embedded in strong continuous random media," Waves Random Media 6, 335-345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

A. Ishimaru, "Backscattering enhancement: from radar cross sections to electron and light localizations to rough surface scattering," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 33, 7-11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

E. Jakeman, "Enhanced backscattering through a deep random phase screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1638-1648 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex ray interpretation of reflection from concave-convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1260-1271 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex rays in transient scattering from smooth targets with inflection points," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1272-1280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

M. Tateiba, "Numerical analysis of nonreciprocity for spatial coherence and spot dancing in random media," Radio Sci. 17, 1531-1535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Kravtsov and A. I. Saishev, "Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media," Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494-508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. L. Bennett and H. Mieras, "Time domain scattering from open thin conducting surfaces," Radio Sci. 16, 1231-1239 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Ikuno, "Calculation of far-scattered fields by the method of stationary phase," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-27, 199-202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1954 (1)

V. H. Rumsey, "Reaction concept in electromagnetic theory," Phys. Rev. 94, 1483-1491 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. L.

C. L. Bennett and H. Mieras, "Time domain scattering from open thin conducting surfaces," Radio Sci. 16, 1231-1239 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bolander, G.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

Carlsson, C.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

Cerveny, V.

V. Cerveny, "Expansion of a plane wave into Gaussian beams," Stud. Geophys. Geod. 46, Suppl 43-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collin, R. E.

J. S. Gardner and R. E. Collin, "Scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder: physical optics and exact solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 642-652 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El-Ocla, H.

H. El-Ocla, "Backscattering from conducting targets in continuous random media for circular polarization," Waves Random Complex Media 15, 91-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "An indirect estimate of RCS of conducting cylinder in random medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 2, 173-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets of large sizes in continuous random media for E-wave incidence," Waves Random Media 12, 387-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Strong backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets in random media," Waves Random Media 11, 21-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Felsen, L. B.

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex ray interpretation of reflection from concave-convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1260-1271 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex rays in transient scattering from smooth targets with inflection points," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1272-1280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. S.

J. S. Gardner and R. E. Collin, "Scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder: physical optics and exact solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 642-652 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikuno, H.

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex ray interpretation of reflection from concave-convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1260-1271 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex rays in transient scattering from smooth targets with inflection points," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1272-1280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno, "Calculation of far-scattered fields by the method of stationary phase," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-27, 199-202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, "Backscattering enhancement: from radar cross sections to electron and light localizations to rough surface scattering," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 33, 7-11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE Press, 1997).

Jakeman, E.

Jelalian, A. V.

A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech, 1992).

Keller, J. B.

Kozaki, S.

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Kravtsov and A. I. Saishev, "Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media," Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494-508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

Meng, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Meng and M. Tateiba, "Radar cross sections of conducting elliptic cylinders embedded in strong continuous random media," Waves Random Media 6, 335-345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mieras, H.

C. L. Bennett and H. Mieras, "Time domain scattering from open thin conducting surfaces," Radio Sci. 16, 1231-1239 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Motojima, K.

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, M.

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, H.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

Rumsey, V. H.

V. H. Rumsey, "Reaction concept in electromagnetic theory," Phys. Rev. 94, 1483-1491 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Saishev, A. I.

Yu. A. Kravtsov and A. I. Saishev, "Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media," Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494-508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, H.

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinvall, O.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

Streifer, W.

Tateiba, M.

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "An indirect estimate of RCS of conducting cylinder in random medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 2, 173-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets of large sizes in continuous random media for E-wave incidence," Waves Random Media 12, 387-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Strong backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets in random media," Waves Random Media 11, 21-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Meng and M. Tateiba, "Radar cross sections of conducting elliptic cylinders embedded in strong continuous random media," Waves Random Media 6, 335-345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tateiba, "Numerical analysis of nonreciprocity for spatial coherence and spot dancing in random media," Radio Sci. 17, 1531-1535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

A. Ishimaru, "Backscattering enhancement: from radar cross sections to electron and light localizations to rough surface scattering," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 33, 7-11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. (1)

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "An indirect estimate of RCS of conducting cylinder in random medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 2, 173-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (5)

H. Ikuno, "Calculation of far-scattered fields by the method of stationary phase," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-27, 199-202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gardner and R. E. Collin, "Scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a large perfectly conducting cylinder: physical optics and exact solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 642-652 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakurai, M. Ohki, K. Motojima, and S. Kozaki, "Scattering of Gaussian beam from a hemispherical boss on a conducting plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 892-894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex ray interpretation of reflection from concave-convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1260-1271 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikuno and L. B. Felsen, "Complex rays in transient scattering from smooth targets with inflection points," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1272-1280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

V. H. Rumsey, "Reaction concept in electromagnetic theory," Phys. Rev. 94, 1483-1491 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci. (2)

M. Tateiba, "Numerical analysis of nonreciprocity for spatial coherence and spot dancing in random media," Radio Sci. 17, 1531-1535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bennett and H. Mieras, "Time domain scattering from open thin conducting surfaces," Radio Sci. 16, 1231-1239 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

Yu. A. Kravtsov and A. I. Saishev, "Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media," Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494-508 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stud. Geophys. Geod. (1)

V. Cerveny, "Expansion of a plane wave into Gaussian beams," Stud. Geophys. Geod. 46, Suppl 43-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Complex Media (1)

H. El-Ocla, "Backscattering from conducting targets in continuous random media for circular polarization," Waves Random Complex Media 15, 91-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (3)

Z. Q. Meng and M. Tateiba, "Radar cross sections of conducting elliptic cylinders embedded in strong continuous random media," Waves Random Media 6, 335-345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Strong backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets in random media," Waves Random Media 11, 21-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Ocla and M. Tateiba, "Backscattering enhancement for partially convex targets of large sizes in continuous random media for E-wave incidence," Waves Random Media 12, 387-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech, 1992).

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, "Gated viewing for target detection and recognition," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IV, G.W.Kamerman and C.Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 3707, 432-448 (1999).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE Press, 1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the problem of wave scattering from a conducting cylinder in a random medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Degree of spatial coherence of an incident wave about the cylinder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry showing the EIRs in free space: (a) plane-wave incidence, (b) beam-wave incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometry showing the EIRs in a random medium: (a) beam-wave incidence, (b) generic incident wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LRCS versus target size in free space where (a) δ = 0 , (b) δ = 0.1 , (c) δ = 0.2 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LRCS versus target size in free space and at three different SCLs for k W = 2 : (a) δ = 0 , (b) δ = 0.1 , (c) δ = 0.2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized LRCS versus target size at different δ for k W = 2 where (a) δ = 0 , (b) δ = 0.1 , (c) δ = 0.2 and σ, σ 0 are the LRCS in random media and in free space, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Enlargement of Fig. 7a.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized LRCS versus target size for SCL = 3 and δ = 0 at different k W .

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( r ) = ε 0 [ 1 + δ ε ( r ) ] ,
δ ε ( r ) = 0 , δ ε ( r ) δ ε ( r ) = B ( r , r ) ,
B ( r , r ) 1 , k l ( r ) 1 .
r = a [ 1 δ cos 3 ( θ ϕ ) ] ,
J ( r 2 ) = S Y E ( r 2 r 1 ) u in ( r 1 r t ) d r 1 ,
u in ( r 1 r t ) = G ( r 1 r t ) exp [ ( k x 1 k W ) 2 ] ,
u s ( r ) = S J E ( r 2 ) G ( r r 2 ) d r 2 .
u s ( r ) = S d r 1 S d r 2 [ G ( r r 2 ) Y E ( r 2 r 1 ) u in ( r 1 r t ) ] .
S Y E ( r 2 r 1 ) u in ( r 1 r t ) d r 1
Φ M * ( r 2 ) A E 1 S Φ M T ( r 1 ) , u in ( r 1 r t ) d r 1 ,
S Φ M T ( r 1 ) , u in ( r 1 r t ) d r 1 S [ ϕ m ( r 1 ) u in ( r 1 r t ) n ϕ m ( r 1 ) n u in ( r 1 r t ) ] d r 1 .
A E = [ ( ϕ N , ϕ N ) ( ϕ N , ϕ N ) ( ϕ N , ϕ N ) ( ϕ N , ϕ N ) ] ,
( ϕ m , ϕ n ) S ϕ m ( r ) ϕ n * ( r ) d r .
u s c ( r ) 2 = S d r 01 S d r 02 S d r 1 S d r 2 × Y E ( r 01 r 1 ) Y E 0 ( r 02 r 2 ) × G ( r r 01 ) G ( r r 02 ) G * ( r r 1 ) G * ( r r 2 ) .
σ = u s ( r ) 2 k ( 4 π z ) 2 .
Γ ( ρ , z ) = G ( r 1 r t ) G * ( r 2 r t ) G ( r 0 r t ) 2 ,

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