Abstract

One challenge for polychromatic laser guide stars is to create a sufficiently intense source in the UV. The flux required for the measurement of differential tip–tilt is the main issue that we address. We describe a model that has been validated using on-sky data. We present a method that excites the 4P32 sodium level using a one-photon excitation at 330nm. It is more efficient than the two-photon excitation previously suggested since its power slope flux is 3×104photonssm2W instead of 1.3×103photonssm2W. This method is very promising both in terms of flux and system simplicity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Fournier, "Quelques technologies laser récentes et leurs applications," Photoniques 18, 25-27 (2005).

2004 (5)

I. S. McLean and S. Adkins, "Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory," in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. F. M. Moorwood, and M. Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 1-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Bellanger, A. Courcelle, and A. Petit, "A program to compute the two-step excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms for the Polychromatic Laser Guide Star Project," Comput. Phys. Commun. 162, 143-150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Biegert and J. C. Diels, "Feasibility study to ceate a polychromatic guidestar in atomic sodium," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043403/1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Pique and S. Farinotti, "An efficient modeless laser for a mesospheric sodium laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2093-2101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. S. Gardner and J. D. Shelton, "Density response of neutral atmospheric layer to gravity wave perturbations," J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1745-1754 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S.

I. S. McLean and S. Adkins, "Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory," in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. F. M. Moorwood, and M. Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 1-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Allaert, E.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, 1973), pp. 25-26.

An, J.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Attal-Trétout, B.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

Badr, T.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

Beeman, B. V.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Bellanger, V.

V. Bellanger, A. Courcelle, and A. Petit, "A program to compute the two-step excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms for the Polychromatic Laser Guide Star Project," Comput. Phys. Commun. 162, 143-150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Biegert, J.

J. Biegert and J. C. Diels, "Feasibility study to ceate a polychromatic guidestar in atomic sodium," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043403/1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Bissinger, H. D.

Blamont, J. E.

G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978).
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Bonaccini, D.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, "Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars," in Adaptive Optics System and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271-275 (2002).

Bos, F.

G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978).
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Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Brase, J. M.

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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Brunetto, E.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Buchroeder, R.

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

Butler, D. J.

Buzzoni, B.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Catone, J.

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

Chanin, M. L.

G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chevrou, P.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Christou, J.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
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Clifford, J. B.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
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Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

Courcelle, A.

V. Bellanger, A. Courcelle, and A. Petit, "A program to compute the two-step excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms for the Polychromatic Laser Guide Star Project," Comput. Phys. Commun. 162, 143-150 (2004).
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Cullum, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Dainty, J. C.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
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Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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Dawson, J. W.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Denman, C.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Denman, C. A.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
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Deron, R.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Di Chirico, C.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Diels, J. C.

J. Biegert and J. C. Diels, "Feasibility study to ceate a polychromatic guidestar in atomic sodium," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043403/1-11 (2003).
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Dimmler, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

d'Orgeville, C.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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C. d'Orgeville and F. Rigaut, Gemini (personal communication, 2005).

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Drobshoff, A.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Drummond, J.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duff, J.

Duff, J. M.

Ellerbroek, B.

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

Erbert, G. V.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Farinotti, S.

Fesquet, V.

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

Fews, H.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Foy, F. C.

Foy, R.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
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M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
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R. Foy, CNRS (personal communication, 2005).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

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Friedman, H. W.

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G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
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Gardner, C. S.

K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988).
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C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

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Georges, P.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
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Gray, P.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Gregory, T.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
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Grynberg, G.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Guillet de Chatellus, H.

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

Hackenberg, W.

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, "Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars," in Adaptive Optics System and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271-275 (2002).

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Hillman, P.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
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Hillman, P. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
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Hilman, P.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
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Himbert, M. E.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
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Högemann, C.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Horton, J. A.

Jajourel, P.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Juncar, P.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
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Kanz, K.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Kiefer, R.

Kwon, K. H.

K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988).
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Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Laubscher, M.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Lewis, H.

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D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Louyer, Y.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
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Macintosh, B.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Max, C. E.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, J. R. Morris, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Duff, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. Valtjen, "Sodium-layer laser-guide-star experimental results," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 825-831 (1994).
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C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 813-824 (1994).
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S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

McCullough, P. R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

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M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Migus, A.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
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R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Moldovan, I. C.

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

Moore, G. T.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
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Morris, J. R.

Müller, D.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Neeb, K. P.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Neyman, C. R.

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

Noethe, L.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
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Olivier, S. S.

Ott, T.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Payne, S.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Peillet, O.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Pennington, D.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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Pennington, D. M.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Petit, A.

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M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Pique, J. P.

J. P. Pique and S. Farinotti, "An efficient modeless laser for a mesospheric sodium laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2093-2101 (2003).
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M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

R. Foy and J. P. Pique, "Lasers in astronomy," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 2581-2624.

Plimmer, M. D.

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Presta, R. W.

Prigent, V.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Quartel, J. C.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quattri, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Rapp, D. A.

Reavell, F. C.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
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M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Rigaut, F.

C. d'Orgeville and F. Rigaut, Gemini (personal communication, 2005).

Robert, D.

Rosencher, E.

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
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Salmon, J. T.

Schöck, M

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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Schöck, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Segonds, P.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Senft, D. C.

K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988).
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Shelton, J. D.

C. S. Gardner and J. D. Shelton, "Density response of neutral atmospheric layer to gravity wave perturbations," J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1745-1754 (1985).
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Soden, R.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Spinhirne, J.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
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Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

Summers, D.

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Tallon, M.

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
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M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
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R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

J. Vaillant, E. Thiebaut, and M. Tallon, "ELPOA: data processing of chromatic differences of the tilt measured with a polychromatic laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 308-315 (2000).

Tallon-Bosc, I.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
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R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Tamai, R.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Tapia, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Tarenghi, M.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Taylor, L.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

Telle, J.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thiebaut, E.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

J. Vaillant, E. Thiebaut, and M. Tallon, "ELPOA: data processing of chromatic differences of the tilt measured with a polychromatic laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 308-315 (2000).

Thiébaut, E.

Tokovinin, A.

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Tuffli, A.

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tuffli, A. L.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaillant, J.

R. Foy, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiébaut, J. Vaillant, F. C. Foy, D. Robert, H. Friedman, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, J. P. Gex, A. Mens, A. Migus, J. M. Weulerse, and D. J. Butler, "Photometric observations of a polychromatic laser guide star," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2236-2242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vaillant, E. Thiebaut, and M. Tallon, "ELPOA: data processing of chromatic differences of the tilt measured with a polychromatic laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 308-315 (2000).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Valtjen, K.

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Van Kersteren, A.

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

Waltjen, K. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 813-824 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

Weulerse, J. M.

Weulersse, J. M.

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

Wilson, R. W.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wizinovich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

Wooder, N. J.

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

V. Bellanger, A. Courcelle, and A. Petit, "A program to compute the two-step excitation of mesospheric sodium atoms for the Polychromatic Laser Guide Star Project," Comput. Phys. Commun. 162, 143-150 (2004).
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J. Geophys. Res. (2)

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K. H. Kwon, D. C. Senft, and C. S. Gardner, "Lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14199-14208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

M. Schöck, R. Foy, M. Tallon, L. Noethe, and J. P. Pique, "Performance analysis of polychromatic laser guide stars used for wave front tilt sensing," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 910-920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Michaille, J. B. Clifford, J. C. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, F. C. Reavell, R. W. Wilson, and N. J. Wooder, "Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Froc, E. Rosencher, B. Attal-Trétout, and V. Michau, "Photon return analysis of a polychromatic laser guide star," Opt. Commun. 178, 405-409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Louyer, F. Balembois, M. D. Plimmer, T. Badr, P. Georges, P. Juncar, and M. E. Himbert, "Efficient cw operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers at 1312.0 and 1322.6nm for a silver atom optical clock," Opt. Commun. 217, 357-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, "20W, CW 589nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope application," Opt. Mater. 26, 507-513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Photoniques (1)

S. Fournier, "Quelques technologies laser récentes et leurs applications," Photoniques 18, 25-27 (2005).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Biegert and J. C. Diels, "Feasibility study to ceate a polychromatic guidestar in atomic sodium," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043403/1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

G. Mégie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, "Simultaneous nighttime LIDAR measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium," Planet. Space Sci. 26, 27-35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

I. S. McLean and S. Adkins, "Instrumentation at the Keck Observatory," in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. F. M. Moorwood, and M. Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 1-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schöck, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, R. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, F. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," in Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere IV, M. C. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: toward the tilt measurement from a polychromatique laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 287-299 (2000).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (3)

J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hillman, J. Spinhirne, and J. Christou, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star from the Starfire Optical Range. II. Compensating the pump beam," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 952-964 (2004).
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J. Drummond, J. Telle, C. Denman, P. Hilman, and A. Tuffli, "Photometry of a sodium laser guide star at Starfire Optical Range," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinovich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

C. d'Orgeville and F. Rigaut, Gemini (personal communication, 2005).

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance character-ization," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

J. Vaillant, E. Thiebaut, and M. Tallon, "ELPOA: data processing of chromatic differences of the tilt measured with a polychromatic laser guide star," in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE 4007, 308-315 (2000).

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, and K. E. Waltjen, "First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory," in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson and R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE 3126, 240-248 (1997).

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinowich, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 370-380 (2003).

D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, E. Brunetto, T. Ott, M. Quattri, E. Allaert, M. Dimmler, M. Tarenghi, A. Van Kersteren, C. Di Chirico, B. Buzzoni, P. Gray, R. Tamai, and M. Tapia, "ESO VLT laser guide star facility," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 276-289 (2002).

C. d'Orgeville, B. Bauman, J. Catone, B. Ellerbroek, D. Gavel, and R. Buchroeder, "Gemini north and south laser guide star systems requirements and preliminary designs," in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggemann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 302-316 (2002).

R. Foy and J. P. Pique, "Lasers in astronomy," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 2581-2624.

R. Foy, CNRS (personal communication, 2005).

The term "modeless" was first introduced by P. Ewart in 1985 and then used by K. Bergmann in 1992 because the mode structure of the cavity is canceled (see Ref. ).

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J. P. Pique, "Suppression of the Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of the fluorescence,"Opt. Express (to be published).

R. Foy, J. P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, V. Prigent, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, P. Jajourel, M. Laubscher, D. Müller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, M. Schöck, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, E. Thiebaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J. M. Weulersse, "Polychromatic guide star: feasibility study," in High Power Laser Ablation III, C. R. Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 312-324 (2002).

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, 1973), pp. 25-26.

D. M. Pennington, J. W. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to 589nm laser guide stars," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 2 of 2004 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. 1.

W. Hackenberg and D. Bonaccini, "Fiber Raman laser development for multiconjugate adaptive optics with sodium laser guide stars," in Adaptive Optics System and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, and M. C. Roggermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 4494, 271-275 (2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy diagram and relaxation pathways of the one-photon excitation of the 4 P 3 2 sodium level at 330 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy diagram and relaxation pathways of the two-photon excitation of the 4 D 5 2 sodium level at 589 and 569 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Returned fluorescence flux at 589 nm ( Φ 31 , LGS) versus average laser power (at the mesosphere) with Keck’s laser characteristics for three types of lasers: (i) 1 MHz single longitudinal mode (dashed curve), (ii) 1 MHz single longitudinal mode followed by a double phase modulation at 180 and 325 (dashed–dotted curve), (iii) modeless (solid curve). The arrow corresponds to the typical laser power and returned flux of Keck Observatory. This calculation corresponds to the two-photon excitation. It shows a gain of 6 from single mode to modeless excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Returned flux at 330 nm of the PASS-2 experiments at Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (see Ref. [25]), versus the peak power at 589 nm ( = P 589 f L τ L ) and total mean power ( P 589 + P 569 ) . The dots correspond to the experimental results using type II lasers and the solid curve corresponds to the numerical simulation in the two-photon excitation with a sodium column density of 4 × 10 9 atoms cm 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and simulated results of PASS-2 with type I lasers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Return fluorescence flux at 330 nm versus average laser power for the three types of lasers: (a) 1 MHz single-mode laser (curves 1 and 4), (b) 1 MHz single-mode laser followed by a double phase modulation at 180 and 325 MHz (curves 2 and 5), and (c) modeless laser (curves 3 and 6). Solid curves correspond to one-photon excitation at 330 nm and dashed curves to the two-photon excitation at 589 and 569 nm . The cross at 30 W VIS on curve 3 corresponds to the ELP-OA project. The cross at 1 W UV on curve 6 corresponds to UV laser power at 330 nm that matches the flux of photons of the ELP-OA project. The cross at 10 W UV on curve 6 corresponds to the flux that is close to the required flux. For the 10 W in the one-photon excitation, it gives seven times more flux than 30 W in the two-photon excitation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio between the returned flux at 330 nm for a modeless laser excitation and for a single-mode laser in the one-photon and two-photon excitations as a function of laser power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ratio between the returned flux at 589 and 330 nm as a function of total laser power in the two-photon excitation and for the three types of lasers: (i) type I, 1 MHz single-mode laser (dashed–dotted curve), (ii) type II, 1 MHz single-mode laser followed by a double phase modulation at 180 and 325 MHz (dashed curve), and (iii) type III, modeless laser (solid curve). The cross indicates that at 30 W total laser power (ELP-OA) the returned flux at 330 nm is at least 2 orders of magnitude smaller than at 589 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Returned flux at 330 nm as a function of the delay between the 589 and 569 nm pulses in the two-photon excitation. A gain of 10% is expected for a 3.7 ns delay. Total laser power is 30 W .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Returned flux at 330 nm as a function of the ratio between 589 nm laser power and total laser power (589 and 569 nm ) in the two-photon excitation. A gain of 10% is achieved when the power is distributed as a ratio of 35% at 589 nm and 65% at 569 nm . Total laser power is 30 W .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mesospheric Sodium Atom Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the PASS-2 Experiment and Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of the PASS-1 Experiment and Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 4 Simulation of the Returned Flux at 330 nm for Different Laser and Excitation Situations a

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N 1 ( t , r , ν ) t = N 1 ( t , r , ν ) g 1 g 5 + σ ( ν ν ) Φ ( t , r , ν ) d ν
+ N 5 ( t , r , ν ) τ 51 + N 2 ( t , r , ν ) τ 21 + N 3 ( t , r , ν ) τ 31
+ N 5 ( t , r , ν ) + σ ( ν ν ) Φ ( t , r , ν ) d ν ,
N 2 ( t , r , ν ) t = N 4 ( t , r , ν ) τ 42 N 2 ( t , r , ν ) τ 21 ,
N 3 ( t , r , ν ) t = N 4 ( r , t , ν ) τ 43 N 3 ( t , r , ν ) τ 31 ,
N 4 ( t , r , ν ) t = N 4 ( t , r , ν ) τ 43 N 4 ( t , r , ν ) τ 42 N 5 ( t , r , ν ) τ 54 ,
N 5 ( t , r , ν ) t = N 1 ( t , r , ν ) + σ ( ν ν ) Φ ( t , r , ν ) d ν
N 5 ( t , r , ν ) τ 54 N 5 ( t , r , ν ) τ 51 N 5 ( t , r , ν )
× g 1 g 5 + σ ( ν ν ) Φ ( t , r , ν ) d ν ,
i = 1 5 N i ( t , r , ν ) = N D ( ν ) = N 1 ( t = 0 , r , ν ) ,
S ( t , r , ν ) = τ 51 + σ ( ν ν ) Φ ( t , r , ν ) d ν = τ 51 φ ( t ) D ( r ) σ eff ( ν ) .
σ ( ν ) = σ 0 ( Δ ν 2 ) 2 ( ν 0 ν ) 2 + ( Δ ν 2 ) 2 ,
S ( t , ν ) = N L τ 51 τ L σ eff ( ν ) π w 2 , 0 < t < τ L ,
S ( t , ν ) = 0 , t < 0 , t > τ L ,
N D ( ν ) = N D 0 2 ln ( 2 ) π Δ ν D exp [ ( 2 ln ( 2 ) Δ ν ν ) 2 ] ,
Φ i j = T f L A Δ z 4 π z 2 1 τ i j + d ν + d 2 r pulse N i ( r , t , ν ) d t = T f L A Δ z 4 π z 2 1 τ i j π w 2 + d ν pulse N i ( t , ν ) d t ,
m V = 2.5 log 10 Φ Φ 0 ,
m V LGS = 9.5 Φ LGS = 1.7 × 10 6 photons s m 2 ,
m V TTNGS = 16 Φ TTNGS = 4.2 × 10 3 photons s m 2 .
θ = n 3 1 n 2 n 1 Δ θ 18 × Δ θ ,
3 S 1 2 3 P 3 2 : I 13 Sat = h ν 589 σ 01 τ 3 185 W m 2 ,
3 P 3 2 4 D 5 2 : I 36 Sat = h ν 569 σ 02 τ 6,3 475 W m 2 ,
3 S 1 2 3 P 3 2 : I 15 Sat = h ν 330 σ 0 τ 5 140 W m 2 .
τ 0 , wavefront = r 0 Δ v ,
τ 0 , tilt = 12.33 ( D r 0 ) 1 6 ( r 0 v ) ,

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