Abstract

Logvinenko [ Perception 31, 201 ( 2002)] asserts that Adelson’s wall-of-blocks illusion [ Science 262, 2042 ( 1993)], where identical gray-cube surface tops appear to differ in brightness, arises when the surfaces surrounding the cube tops are shadow compatible, creating a concomitant illusion of transparency. We replicated Logvinenko’s main findings in the chromatic domain across three experiments in which observers match cube tops in hue, saturation, and brightness. A second set of stimuli adjusted cone-excitation ratios across the apparent transparency border [ Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115 ( 1994)], which enhanced lightness and brightness constancy but only when the stimuli varied in both chromaticity and intensity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Logvinenko, “Articulation in the context of edge classification,” Perception 31, 201–207 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. D. Logvinenko, “A fair test of the effect of a shadow-incompatible luminance gradient on the simultaneous lightness contrast (followed by discussion),” Perception 32, 717–730 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness, brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Marr, Vision (Freeman, New York, 1982).
  6. H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  8. F. Kingdom, “Old wine in new bottles? Some thoughts on Logvinenko’s ‘Lightness induction revisited,’ ” Perception 28, 929–934 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, J. F. W. Nuboer, “Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311–316.
  11. N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Monnier, S. Shevell, “Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns,” Vision Res. 44, 849–859 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Role of perceptual organization in chromatic induction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 244–254 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. L. R. Strutt, Rayleigh, “On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour,” Philos. Mag. 41, 107–129 (1871).
  17. K. D. Abhyankar, “Hundred and twenty five years of Rayleigh scattering in the study of the planetary atmospheres,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 37, 281–295 (1996).
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, “Diffraction by a conducting Sphere: Theory of Mie,” in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 633–644.
  19. M. E. Churma, “Blue shadows: physical, physiological, and psychological causes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4719–4722 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Priest, “Blue sky and white snow,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 308 (1926).
  21. L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “Quantitative studies of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1772–1780 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. H. Brainard, “The effect of the illuminant on color appearance,” in Perceiving, Measuring, and Using Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. SPIE1250, 119–130 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 739–757 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. H. Foster, S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios,” Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115–121 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Proceedings of the 12th Session CIE, Stockholm (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1951).
  32. J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. I. C. Priest, “The spectral distribution of energy required to evoke the gray sensation,” Vol. 17 of Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1922), pp. 231–265.
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. O. Corporation, “Pseudo-isochromatic plates for testing color perception” (I.S.C. Council, Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, Pa., 1940).
  39. S. Nadimi, B. Bhanu, “Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079–1087 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Golz, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Colorimetry for CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 769–781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Krauskopf, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. R. Perkins, J. A. Schirillo, “Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2246–2253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  45. F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 91–98 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).
  47. S. C. Masin, “Luminance determinants of perceived surface stratification in two-dimensional achromatic transparent patterns,” Perception 29, 853–861 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. S. C. Masin, “The luminance conditions of transparency,” Perception 26, 39–50 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. II, 3rd German ed., J. P. C. Southhall, ed. (Dover, New York, 1866/1962).
  50. M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  51. F. A. A. Kingdom, “Levels of brightness perception,” in Levels of Perception, L. Harris, M. Jenkin, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 19–41.
  52. J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. W. Gerbino, “Models of achromatic transparency: a theoretical analysis,” Gestalt Theory 10, 5–20 (1988).
  54. A. Logvinenko, “Invariant relationships between achromatic colour, apparent illumination and shape of surface: implications for the colour constancy theories,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 591–597.
  55. F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451–466 (2002).
  57. B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching,” Vision Res. 42, 211–226 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. S. Westland, C. Ripamonti, “Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255–264 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  60. M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  61. V. J. Chen, M. D’Zmura, “Test of a convergence model for color transparency perception,” Perception 27, 595–608 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  62. F. Faul, V. Ekroll, “Psychophysical model of chromatic perceptual transparency based on subtractive color mixture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1084–1095 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  63. C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).
  64. S. Westland, O. Da Pos, C. Ripamonti, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4662, 315–323 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  65. J. Beck, “On the computational modeling of human vision,” in Foundations of Image Analysis, L. Davis, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 1–27.
  66. A. Logvinenko, D. A. Ross, “Adelson’s tile and snake illusions: Helmholtzian type of simultaneous lightness contrast,” submitted to Vision Res.
  67. K. H. Bauml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  68. J. D. Mollon, “ ‘Cherries among the leaves’: the evolutionary origins of color vision,” in Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives, S. Davis, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2000), pp. 10–30.
  69. H. K. Bauml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  71. B. J. Craven, D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to colour constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359–1366 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

2004

P. Monnier, S. Shevell, “Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns,” Vision Res. 44, 849–859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nadimi, B. Bhanu, “Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079–1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Golz, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Colorimetry for CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 769–781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Perkins, J. A. Schirillo, “Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2246–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Logvinenko, “A fair test of the effect of a shadow-incompatible luminance gradient on the simultaneous lightness contrast (followed by discussion),” Perception 32, 717–730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Logvinenko, “Articulation in the context of edge classification,” Perception 31, 201–207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451–466 (2002).

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching,” Vision Res. 42, 211–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Faul, V. Ekroll, “Psychophysical model of chromatic perceptual transparency based on subtractive color mixture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1084–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).

2000

S. Westland, C. Ripamonti, “Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Masin, “Luminance determinants of perceived surface stratification in two-dimensional achromatic transparent patterns,” Perception 29, 853–861 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Role of perceptual organization in chromatic induction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 244–254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kingdom, “Old wine in new bottles? Some thoughts on Logvinenko’s ‘Lightness induction revisited,’ ” Perception 28, 929–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Bauml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Masin, “The luminance conditions of transparency,” Perception 26, 39–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. D. Abhyankar, “Hundred and twenty five years of Rayleigh scattering in the study of the planetary atmospheres,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 37, 281–295 (1996).

1995

1994

M. E. Churma, “Blue shadows: physical, physiological, and psychological causes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4719–4722 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios,” Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 739–757 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

J. Krauskopf, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Craven, D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to colour constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

W. Gerbino, “Models of achromatic transparency: a theoretical analysis,” Gestalt Theory 10, 5–20 (1988).

1986

1984

J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1978

J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 91–98 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1926

I. Priest, “Blue sky and white snow,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 308 (1926).

1871

J. W. L. R. Strutt, Rayleigh, “On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour,” Philos. Mag. 41, 107–129 (1871).

Abhyankar, K. D.

K. D. Abhyankar, “Hundred and twenty five years of Rayleigh scattering in the study of the planetary atmospheres,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 37, 281–295 (1996).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, L.

Arend, L. E.

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness, brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, C. S.

C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauml, H. K.

H. K. Bauml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauml, K. H.

Beck, J.

S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beck, “On the computational modeling of human vision,” in Foundations of Image Analysis, L. Davis, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 1–27.

Bernardis, P.

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhanu, B.

S. Nadimi, B. Bhanu, “Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079–1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bilson, A. C.

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, K. T.

Blakeslee, B.

F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Diffraction by a conducting Sphere: Theory of Mie,” in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 633–644.

Boynton, R. M.

Brainard, D. H.

Brenner, E.

E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, J. F. W. Nuboer, “Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311–316.

Bruno, N.

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchsbaum, G.

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V. J.

V. J. Chen, M. D’Zmura, “Test of a convergence model for color transparency perception,” Perception 27, 595–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Churma, M. E.

Colantoni, P.

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelissen, F. W.

E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, J. F. W. Nuboer, “Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311–316.

Corporation, A. O.

A. O. Corporation, “Pseudo-isochromatic plates for testing color perception” (I.S.C. Council, Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, Pa., 1940).

Craven, B. J.

B. J. Craven, D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to colour constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Chen, M. D’Zmura, “Test of a convergence model for color transparency perception,” Perception 27, 595–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Pos, O.

C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).

S. Westland, O. Da Pos, C. Ripamonti, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4662, 315–323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekroll, V.

Faul, F.

Ferreira, F. P.

Foster, D. H.

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios,” Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Craven, D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to colour constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. T.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerbino, W.

W. Gerbino, “Models of achromatic transparency: a theoretical analysis,” Gestalt Theory 10, 5–20 (1988).

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R.

Golz, J.

Ivry, R.

J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenness, J. W.

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Proceedings of the 12th Session CIE, Stockholm (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1951).

Khang, B.

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451–466 (2002).

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching,” Vision Res. 42, 211–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaung, B.

R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).

Kingdom, F.

F. Kingdom, “Old wine in new bottles? Some thoughts on Logvinenko’s ‘Lightness induction revisited,’ ” Perception 28, 929–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kingdom, F. A. A.

F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. A. Kingdom, “Levels of brightness perception,” in Levels of Perception, L. Harris, M. Jenkin, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 19–41.

Knoblauch, K.

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kossyfidis, C.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laget, B.

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logvinenko, A.

A. Logvinenko, “Articulation in the context of edge classification,” Perception 31, 201–207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Logvinenko, D. A. Ross, “Adelson’s tile and snake illusions: Helmholtzian type of simultaneous lightness contrast,” submitted to Vision Res.

A. Logvinenko, “Invariant relationships between achromatic colour, apparent illumination and shape of surface: implications for the colour constancy theories,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 591–597.

Logvinenko, A. D.

A. D. Logvinenko, “A fair test of the effect of a shadow-incompatible luminance gradient on the simultaneous lightness contrast (followed by discussion),” Perception 32, 717–730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucassen, M. P.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 739–757 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Malkoc, G.

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marr, D.

D. Marr, Vision (Freeman, New York, 1982).

Masin, S. C.

S. C. Masin, “Luminance determinants of perceived surface stratification in two-dimensional achromatic transparent patterns,” Perception 29, 853–861 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Masin, “The luminance conditions of transparency,” Perception 26, 39–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCourt, M. E.

F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metelli, F.

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 91–98 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mingolla, E.

S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, “ ‘Cherries among the leaves’: the evolutionary origins of color vision,” in Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives, S. Davis, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2000), pp. 10–30.

Monnier, P.

P. Monnier, S. Shevell, “Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns,” Vision Res. 44, 849–859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadimi, S.

S. Nadimi, B. Bhanu, “Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079–1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nascimento, S. M. C.

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios,” Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nuboer, J. F. W.

E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, J. F. W. Nuboer, “Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311–316.

Oddo, S.

S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, K. R.

Prazdny, K.

J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priest, I.

I. Priest, “Blue sky and white snow,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 308 (1926).

Priest, I. C.

I. C. Priest, “The spectral distribution of energy required to evoke the gray sensation,” Vol. 17 of Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1922), pp. 231–265.
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh,

J. W. L. R. Strutt, Rayleigh, “On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour,” Philos. Mag. 41, 107–129 (1871).

Reeves, A.

Ribilotto, R.

R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).

Rinner, O.

M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, C.

C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).

S. Westland, C. Ripamonti, “Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Westland, O. Da Pos, C. Ripamonti, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4662, 315–323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ross, D. A.

A. Logvinenko, D. A. Ross, “Adelson’s tile and snake illusions: Helmholtzian type of simultaneous lightness contrast,” submitted to Vision Res.

Schirillo, J.

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirillo, J. A.

Shevell, S.

P. Monnier, S. Shevell, “Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns,” Vision Res. 44, 849–859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevell, S. K.

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Role of perceptual organization in chromatic induction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 244–254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spehar, B.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Strutt, J. W. L. R.

J. W. L. R. Strutt, Rayleigh, “On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour,” Philos. Mag. 41, 107–129 (1871).

von Helmholtz, H.

H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. II, 3rd German ed., J. P. C. Southhall, ed. (Dover, New York, 1866/1962).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallach, H.

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walraven, J.

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 739–757 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandell, B. A.

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S. M.

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westland, S.

C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).

S. Westland, C. Ripamonti, “Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Westland, O. Da Pos, C. Ripamonti, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4662, 315–323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Diffraction by a conducting Sphere: Theory of Mie,” in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 633–644.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Zaidi, Q.

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching,” Vision Res. 42, 211–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451–466 (2002).

Appl. Opt.

Color Res. Appl.

J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gestalt Theory

W. Gerbino, “Models of achromatic transparency: a theoretical analysis,” Gestalt Theory 10, 5–20 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

S. Nadimi, B. Bhanu, “Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079–1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging

C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, O. Da Pos, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29–35 (2002).

J. Exp. Psychol.

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Math. Imaging Vision

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451–466 (2002).

R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, Q. Zaidi, “Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388–403 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “Quantitative studies of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1772–1780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, W. T. Freeman, “Bayesian color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393–1411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness, brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schirillo, S. K. Shevell, “Role of perceptual organization in chromatic induction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 244–254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Golz, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Colorimetry for CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 769–781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Perkins, J. A. Schirillo, “Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2246–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Westland, C. Ripamonti, “Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Faul, V. Ekroll, “Psychophysical model of chromatic perceptual transparency based on subtractive color mixture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1084–1095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Bauml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision

M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, S. M. Webster, “Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance,” J. Vision 2, 505–519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys.

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beck, K. Prazdny, R. Ivry, “The perception of transparency with achromatic colors,” Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407–422 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, J. Schirillo, “Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring,” Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643–654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception

A. Logvinenko, “Articulation in the context of edge classification,” Perception 31, 201–207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Logvinenko, “A fair test of the effect of a shadow-incompatible luminance gradient on the simultaneous lightness contrast (followed by discussion),” Perception 32, 717–730 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 673–677 (1997).
[PubMed]

F. Kingdom, “Old wine in new bottles? Some thoughts on Logvinenko’s ‘Lightness induction revisited,’ ” Perception 28, 929–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471–492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Zmura, O. Rinner, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The colors seen behind transparent filters,” Perception 29, 911–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Chen, M. D’Zmura, “Test of a convergence model for color transparency perception,” Perception 27, 595–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Masin, “Luminance determinants of perceived surface stratification in two-dimensional achromatic transparent patterns,” Perception 29, 853–861 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Masin, “The luminance conditions of transparency,” Perception 26, 39–50 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Mag.

J. W. L. R. Strutt, Rayleigh, “On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour,” Philos. Mag. 41, 107–129 (1871).

Proc. R. Soc. London

D. H. Foster, S. M. C. Nascimento, “Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios,” Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B

S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. J. R. Astron. Soc.

K. D. Abhyankar, “Hundred and twenty five years of Rayleigh scattering in the study of the planetary atmospheres,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 37, 281–295 (1996).

Sci. Am.

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 91–98 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. H. Adelson, “Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness,” Science 262, 2042–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spatial Vis.

S. Oddo, J. Beck, E. Mingolla, “Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns,” Spatial Vis. 12, 421–459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

B. J. Craven, D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to colour constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching,” Vision Res. 42, 211–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, S. K. Shevell, “Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity,” Vision Res. 39, 3561–3574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monnier, S. Shevell, “Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns,” Vision Res. 44, 849–859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 739–757 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Bauml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. C. Priest, “The spectral distribution of energy required to evoke the gray sensation,” Vol. 17 of Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1922), pp. 231–265.
[CrossRef]

D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry and artificial daylight,” in Proceedings of the 12th Session CIE, Stockholm (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1951).

D. H. Brainard, “The effect of the illuminant on color appearance,” in Perceiving, Measuring, and Using Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. SPIE1250, 119–130 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Diffraction by a conducting Sphere: Theory of Mie,” in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 633–644.

E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, J. F. W. Nuboer, “Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311–316.

D. Marr, Vision (Freeman, New York, 1982).

A. O. Corporation, “Pseudo-isochromatic plates for testing color perception” (I.S.C. Council, Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, Pa., 1940).

H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. II, 3rd German ed., J. P. C. Southhall, ed. (Dover, New York, 1866/1962).

F. A. A. Kingdom, “Levels of brightness perception,” in Levels of Perception, L. Harris, M. Jenkin, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 19–41.

A. Logvinenko, “Invariant relationships between achromatic colour, apparent illumination and shape of surface: implications for the colour constancy theories,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 591–597.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

J. D. Mollon, “ ‘Cherries among the leaves’: the evolutionary origins of color vision,” in Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives, S. Davis, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2000), pp. 10–30.

S. Westland, O. Da Pos, C. Ripamonti, “Conditions for perceptual transparency,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4662, 315–323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Beck, “On the computational modeling of human vision,” in Foundations of Image Analysis, L. Davis, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 1–27.

A. Logvinenko, D. A. Ross, “Adelson’s tile and snake illusions: Helmholtzian type of simultaneous lightness contrast,” submitted to Vision Res.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Logvinenko–Adelson1-3 shadow-compatible wall-of-blocks illusion, (b) Logvinenko1,2 shadow-incompatible wall-of-blocks pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of Experiment 1: intensity across, intensity up and down. (a) Shadow compatible, (b) shadow incompatible. (Intensities are displayed in Fig. 4.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Images are significantly more saturated and only approximate the CRT displays.) Experiment 1, intensity variation: (a) shadow-compatible blue isochromatic stimuli (i.e., the light-blue strip is composed of B1 and B5, and the dark-blue strip is composed of B3-B4), (b) shadow-incompatible blue isochromatic stimuli (i.e., the light-blue strip is composed of B1 and B2, and the dark-blue strip remains composed of B3-B4). Test patches (T) are within the lighter surrounds, and comparison-patches (C) are within the darker surrounds. Experiment 2, chromatic and intensity variation: (c) shadow-compatible stimuli (i.e., the light-yellow strip is composed of Y1 and Y2, and the dark-blue strip remains composed of B3-B4), (d) shadow-incompatible stimuli (i.e., the yellow strip is composed of Y1 and Y5, and the blue strip is composed of B3-B4). Test patches are within the darker surrounds and comparison patches are within the lighter surrounds. Experiment 3, chromatic variation in the yellowish range: (e) shadow-compatible stimuli [i.e., the yellowish strip is composed of C1 and C2 (or C3-C2), and the bluish strip is composed of C3-C4 (or C5-C4)], (f) shadow-incompatible stimuli [i.e., the yellowish strip is composed of C1 and C5 (or C3-C2), and the bluish strip is composed of C3-C4 (or C5-C1)]. Test patches are in the surrounds that vary across compatibility conditions, and comparison patches are in the surrounds that are invariant across compatibility conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of intensities and chromaticities displayed in Figs. 4, 5, and 7.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of Experiment 2: intensity across, chromaticity up and down. (a) Shadow compatible, (b) shadow incompatible. (Intensities and chromaticities are displayed in Fig. 4.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stimulus chromaticities. Unadjusted (dots-within-circles) and adjusted (squares) cone-excitation ratios, plotted in MacLeod–Boynton (LMS) color space.35 The extreme temperatures (i.e., 2856° K and 20,000° K) were the yellowish and bluish surrounds used in Experiments 1 and 2. The complete range composed the surrounds used in Experiments 3. Also plotted are the green Munsell (5GY7/10) and purple Munsell (5P7/6) comparison papers under 5300° K illuminant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of Experiment 3: chromaticity across, chromaticity up and down. (a) Shadow compatible, (b) shadow incompatible. (Chromaticities are displayed in Fig. 4).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experiment 1 main effect [and standard error of the mean (SEM)] of shadow compatibility for (a) Y-value scores (cd/m2) and (b) s-value scores.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experiment 2 main effect (and SEM) of shadow-compatibility Y-value scores (cd/m2) as a function of (a) comparison patches, (b) test surrounds, (c) test and comparison surrounds, and (d) cone-excitation ratios.  

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experiment 3 main effect (and SEM) of shadow compatibility for s-value scores.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experiment 1: Test-Patch Difference Score Means as a Function of Shadow Compatibility, Cone-Excitation Ratios, Stimulus Color Scheme, and Test-Patch Color

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experiment 2: Test-Patch Difference Score Means as a Function of Shadow Compatibility, Cone-Excitation Ratios, Stimulus Color Scheme, and Test-Patch Color

Tables Icon

Table 3 Experiment 3: Test-Patch Difference Score Means as a Function of Shadow Compatibility, Cone-Excitation Ratios, Stimulus Color Scheme, and Test-Patch Color

Metrics