We present an image-based method for face recognition across different illuminations and poses, where the term image-based means that no explicit prior three-dimensional models are needed. As face recognition under illumination and pose variations involves three factors, namely, identity, illumination, and pose, generalizations in all these three factors are desired. We present a recognition approach that is able to generalize in the identity and illumination dimensions and handle a given set of poses. Specifically, the proposed approach derives an identity signature that is illumination- and pose-invariant, where the identity is tackled by means of subspace encoding, the illumination is characterized with a Lambertian reflectance model, and the given set of poses is treated as a whole. Experimental results using the Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE) database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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