Abstract

Capturing surface appearance is a challenging task because reflectance varies as a function of viewing and illumination direction. In addition, most real-world surfaces have a textured appearance, so reflectance also varies spatially. We present a texture camera that can conveniently capture spatially varying reflectance on a surface. Unlike other bidirectional imaging devices, the design eliminates the need for complex mechanical apparatus to move the light source and the camera over a hemisphere of possible directions. To facilitate fast and convenient measurement, the device uses a curved mirror so that multiple views of the same surface point are captured simultaneously. Simple planar motions of the imaging components also permit change of illumination direction and region imaging. We present the current prototype of this device, imaging results, and an analysis of the important imaging properties.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (2)

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, H. Rushmeier, “High quality texture reconstruction from multiple scans,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph. 7, 318–332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. van Ginneken, J. J. Koenderink, K. J. Dana, “Texture histograms as a function of irradiation and viewing direction,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 169–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Baker, S. K. Nayar, “A theory of single-viewpoint catadioptric image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 35, 175–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

H. Murase, S. K. Nayar, “Visual learning and recognition of 3-D objects from appearance,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 14, 5–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Turk, A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 3, 71–86 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, S. K. Nayar, “A theory of single-viewpoint catadioptric image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 35, 175–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, H. Rushmeier, “High quality texture reconstruction from multiple scans,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph. 7, 318–332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carter, R. R.

R. R. Carter, L. K. Pleskot, “Imaging scatterometer,” U.S. patent5,912,741 (June1999).

Cula, O. G.

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, F. P. Murphy, B. K. Rao, “Skin texture modeling,” Int. J. Comput. Vision (to be published).

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, “Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4299, 209–220 (2001).

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, “Compact representation of bidirectional texture functions,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 1041–1067.

Dana, K. J.

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. van Ginneken, J. J. Koenderink, K. J. Dana, “Texture histograms as a function of irradiation and viewing direction,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 169–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, F. P. Murphy, B. K. Rao, “Skin texture modeling,” Int. J. Comput. Vision (to be published).

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Histogram model for 3D textures,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 618–624.

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “3D textured surface modeling,” in Workshop on the Integration of Appearance and Geometric Methods in Object Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 46–56.

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, “Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE4299, 209–220 (2001).

K. J. Dana, “BRDF/BTF measurement device,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 460–466.

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Correlation model for 3D texture,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), pp. 1061–1067.

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, “Compact representation of bidirectional texture functions,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 1041–1067.

Davis, K.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Davis, K. J.

K. J. Davis, D. C. Rawlings, “Directional reflectometer for measuring optical bidirectional reflectance,” U.S. patent5,637,873 (June10, 1997).

Dombrowski, M. S.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Foo, S. C.

S. C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, “Equipment acquisition for the light measurement laboratory of the Cornell program of computer graphics,” (Program of Computer Graphics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1995).

Foos, B.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Guo, B.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Healey, G.

P. Suen, G. Healey, “Analyzing the bidirectional texture function,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 753–758.

Johnson, P.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Koenderink, J. J.

B. van Ginneken, J. J. Koenderink, K. J. Dana, “Texture histograms as a function of irradiation and viewing direction,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 169–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lafortune, E.

Leung, T.

T. Leung, J. Malik, “Recognizing surfaces using three-dimensional textons,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 1010–1017.

Liu, L.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, J.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Malik, J.

T. Leung, J. Malik, “Recognizing surfaces using three-dimensional textons,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 1010–1017.

Mann, H.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Marschner, S. R.

Martin, I.

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, H. Rushmeier, “High quality texture reconstruction from multiple scans,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph. 7, 318–332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mattison, P. R.

P. R. Mattison, M. S. Dombrowski, J. Lorenz, K. Davis, H. Mann, P. Johnson, B. Foos, “Hand-held directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real-time,” in International Society for Optical Engineering, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3426, 240–251 (1998).

Mittleman, J.

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moghaddam, B.

A. Pentland, B. Moghaddam, T. Starner, “View-based and modular eigenspaces for face recognition,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 84–91.

Murase, H.

H. Murase, S. K. Nayar, “Visual learning and recognition of 3-D objects from appearance,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 14, 5–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, F. P.

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, F. P. Murphy, B. K. Rao, “Skin texture modeling,” Int. J. Comput. Vision (to be published).

Nayar, S. K.

S. Baker, S. K. Nayar, “A theory of single-viewpoint catadioptric image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 35, 175–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Murase, S. K. Nayar, “Visual learning and recognition of 3-D objects from appearance,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 14, 5–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Nayar, “Catadioptric omnidirectional camera,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), pp. 482–488.

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Correlation model for 3D texture,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), pp. 1061–1067.

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Histogram model for 3D textures,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 618–624.

K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “3D textured surface modeling,” in Workshop on the Integration of Appearance and Geometric Methods in Object Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 46–56.

Pentland, A.

M. Turk, A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 3, 71–86 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pentland, B. Moghaddam, T. Starner, “View-based and modular eigenspaces for face recognition,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 84–91.

Pleskot, L. K.

R. R. Carter, L. K. Pleskot, “Imaging scatterometer,” U.S. patent5,912,741 (June1999).

Rao, B. K.

O. G. Cula, K. J. Dana, F. P. Murphy, B. K. Rao, “Skin texture modeling,” Int. J. Comput. Vision (to be published).

Rawlings, D. C.

K. J. Davis, D. C. Rawlings, “Directional reflectometer for measuring optical bidirectional reflectance,” U.S. patent5,637,873 (June10, 1997).

Rushmeier, H.

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, H. Rushmeier, “High quality texture reconstruction from multiple scans,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph. 7, 318–332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shum, H. Y.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Starner, T.

A. Pentland, B. Moghaddam, T. Starner, “View-based and modular eigenspaces for face recognition,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 84–91.

Suen, P.

P. Suen, G. Healey, “Analyzing the bidirectional texture function,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 753–758.

Taubin, G.

F. Bernardini, I. Martin, J. Mittleman, H. Rushmeier, G. Taubin, “Building a digital model of Michelangelo’s Florentine Pieta,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 1(22), 59–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torrance, K. E.

S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, E. Lafortune, K. E. Torrance, “Image-based bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurement,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2592–2600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, “Equipment acquisition for the light measurement laboratory of the Cornell program of computer graphics,” (Program of Computer Graphics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1995).

Turk, M.

M. Turk, A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 3, 71–86 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Doorn, A. J.

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Ginneken, B.

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. van Ginneken, J. J. Koenderink, K. J. Dana, “Texture histograms as a function of irradiation and viewing direction,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 169–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Gool, L.

A. Zalesny, L. Van Gool, “Multiview texture models,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 615–622.

Varma, M.

M. Varma, A. Zisserman, “Classifying images of materials,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), pp. 255–271.

Wang, X.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ward, G. J.

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Westin, S. H.

Zalesny, A.

A. Zalesny, L. Van Gool, “Multiview texture models,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 615–622.

Zhang, J.

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zisserman, A.

M. Varma, A. Zisserman, “Classifying images of materials,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), pp. 255–271.

ACM Trans. Graph. (2)

X. Tong, J. Zhang, L. Liu, X. Wang, B. Guo, H. Y. Shum, “Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 665–672 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and texture of real world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 18, 1–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Graph. (1)

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

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