Abstract

We present an analysis of the diffraction effects from a segmented aperture with a very large number of segments—prototype of the next generation of extremely large telescopes. This analysis is based on the point-spread-function analytical calculation for Keck-type hexagonal segmentation geometry. We concentrate on the effects that lead to the appearance of speckles and/or a regular pattern of diffraction peaks. These effects are related to random piston and tip–tilt errors on each segment, gaps between segments, and segment edge distortion. We deliver formulas and the typical numerical values for the Strehl ratio, the relative intensity of higher-order diffraction peaks, and the averaged intensity of speckles associated with each particular case of segmentation error.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).
  2. P. Dierickx, R. Gilmozzi, “Progress of the OWL 100-m telescope conceptual design,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 290–299 (2000).
  3. D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
  4. J. Nelson, T. Mast, S. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and telescope,” (W. M. Keck Library, Kamuela Hawaii, 1985), pp. 5-1 to 5-44.
  5. V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).
  6. F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).
  7. J. Nelson, “Design concepts for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds. Proc. SPIE4004, 282–289 (2000).
  8. S. Strom, L. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
  9. A. L. Ardeberg, T. Andersen, M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, “Euro50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
  10. G. Zeider, E. Montgomery, “Diffraction effect with segmented aperture,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 799–809 (1998).
  11. G. Zeider, “Image-based alignment of large segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 241–249 (2000).
  12. N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Simulation of imaging performance for extremely large segmented telescopes,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 279–290 (2000).
  13. M. Troy, G. A. Chanan, “Diffraction effects from giant segmented mirror telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 81–92 (2002).
  14. J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, “Diffraction in OWL: effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 171–182 (2002).
  16. N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Tip–tilt error for extremely large segmented telescope: detailed theoretical analysis and numerical simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1274–1285 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Chanan, M. Troy, “Strehl ratio and modulation transfer function for segmented mirror telescopes as functions of segment phase error,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6642–6647 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
  19. G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescope: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140–155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Schumacher, N. Devaney, L. Montoya Martinez, “Phasing segmented mirrors: a modification of the Keck narrow-band technique and its application to extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1297–1307 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Esposito, N. Devaney, “Segmented telescope co-phasing using pyramid sensor,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., in ESO Conference Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), Vol. 58, pp. 161–166.
  22. S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).
  23. L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

Andersen, T.

A. L. Ardeberg, T. Andersen, M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, “Euro50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).

Angel, J. R. P.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Ardeberg, A. L.

A. L. Ardeberg, T. Andersen, M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, “Euro50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).

Burgarella, D.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

Burge, J. H.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Castro, F. J.

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

Cavaller, L.

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

Chanan, G.

Chanan, G. A.

M. Troy, G. A. Chanan, “Diffraction effects from giant segmented mirror telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 81–92 (2002).

Coulter, R.

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

Dekens, F.

Devaney, N.

A. Schumacher, N. Devaney, L. Montoya Martinez, “Phasing segmented mirrors: a modification of the Keck narrow-band technique and its application to extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1297–1307 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

S. Esposito, N. Devaney, “Segmented telescope co-phasing using pyramid sensor,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., in ESO Conference Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), Vol. 58, pp. 161–166.

Dierickx, P.

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, “Diffraction in OWL: effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 171–182 (2002).

P. Dierickx, R. Gilmozzi, “Progress of the OWL 100-m telescope conceptual design,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 290–299 (2000).

L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

Dohlen, K.

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Tip–tilt error for extremely large segmented telescope: detailed theoretical analysis and numerical simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1274–1285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Simulation of imaging performance for extremely large segmented telescopes,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 279–290 (2000).

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, “Diffraction in OWL: effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 171–182 (2002).

Esposito, S.

S. Esposito, N. Devaney, “Segmented telescope co-phasing using pyramid sensor,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., in ESO Conference Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), Vol. 58, pp. 161–166.

Faber, S.

J. Nelson, T. Mast, S. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and telescope,” (W. M. Keck Library, Kamuela Hawaii, 1985), pp. 5-1 to 5-44.

Ferrari, M.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

Fowler, S. R.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).

Garfias, F.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

Gilmozzi, R.

P. Dierickx, R. Gilmozzi, “Progress of the OWL 100-m telescope conceptual design,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 290–299 (2000).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).

Gregory, B.

S. Strom, L. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).

Hammer, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

Jochum, L.

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

Kirkman, D.

Krabbendam, V. L.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).

Kurn, J. R.

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Mast, T.

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescope: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, T. Mast, S. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and telescope,” (W. M. Keck Library, Kamuela Hawaii, 1985), pp. 5-1 to 5-44.

Michaels, S.

Miller, S. M.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Montgomery, E.

G. Zeider, E. Montgomery, “Diffraction effect with segmented aperture,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 799–809 (1998).

Montoya Martinez, L.

A. Schumacher, N. Devaney, L. Montoya Martinez, “Phasing segmented mirrors: a modification of the Keck narrow-band technique and its application to extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1297–1307 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

Moretto, G.

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mountain, M.

S. Strom, L. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).

Nelson, J.

G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescope: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, T. Mast, S. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and telescope,” (W. M. Keck Library, Kamuela Hawaii, 1985), pp. 5-1 to 5-44.

J. Nelson, “Design concepts for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds. Proc. SPIE4004, 282–289 (2000).

Orlov, V. G.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

Racine, R.

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ray, F. B.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).

Roddier, F.

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Espinosa, M.

A. L. Ardeberg, T. Andersen, M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, “Euro50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).

Ronquillo, B.

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

Sanchez, L.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

Sasian, J. M.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Sayede, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

Schumacher, A.

Sebring, T. A.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).

Stepp, L.

S. Strom, L. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).

Strittmatter, P. A.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

Strom, S.

S. Strom, L. Stepp, M. Mountain, B. Gregory, “Giant segmented mirror telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).

Troy, M.

Voitsekhovich, V.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

Yaitskova, N.

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Tip–tilt error for extremely large segmented telescope: detailed theoretical analysis and numerical simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1274–1285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, “Simulation of imaging performance for extremely large segmented telescopes,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 279–290 (2000).

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, “Diffraction in OWL: effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 171–182 (2002).

Zamkotsian, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

Zeider, G.

G. Zeider, “Image-based alignment of large segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 241–249 (2000).

G. Zeider, E. Montgomery, “Diffraction effect with segmented aperture,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 799–809 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. R. Kurn, G. Moretto, R. Racine, F. Roddier, R. Coulter, “Concept for a large-aperture, high dynamic range telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 1486–1510 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, “Diffraction in OWL: effects of segmentation and segments edge misfigure,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 171–182 (2002).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).

S. Esposito, N. Devaney, “Segmented telescope co-phasing using pyramid sensor,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, N. Hubin, eds., in ESO Conference Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), Vol. 58, pp. 161–166.

S. Cuevas, V. G. Orlov, F. Garfias, V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, “Curvature equation for a segmented telescope,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 291–302 (2000).

L. Montoya Martinez, N. Yaitskova, P. Dierickx, K. Dohlen, “Mach–Zehnder wave front sensor for phasing of segmented telescopes,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 564–573 (2002).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, P. A. Strittmatter, “Optics for the 20/20 telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 194–205 (2002).

P. Dierickx, R. Gilmozzi, “Progress of the OWL 100-m telescope conceptual design,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 290–299 (2000).

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Sayede, F. Hammer, F. Zamkotsian, “Next generation Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).

J. Nelson, T. Mast, S. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and telescope,” (W. M. Keck Library, Kamuela Hawaii, 1985), pp. 5-1 to 5-44.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, S. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby–Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 436–445 (1998).

F. J. Castro, N. Devaney, L. Jochum, B. Ronquillo, L. Cavaller, “The status of the design and fabrication of the GTC Mirrors,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 24–33 (2000).

J. Nelson, “Design concepts for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds. Proc. SPIE4004, 282–289 (2000).

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