Abstract

To study the characteristics of color memory for natural images, a memory-identification task was performed with differing color contrasts; three of the contrasts were defined by chromatic and luminance components of the image, and the others were defined with respect to the categorical colors. After observing a series of pictures successively, subjects identified the pictures using a confidence rating. Detection of increased contrasts tended to be harder than detection of decreased contrasts, suggesting that the chromaticness of pictures is enhanced in memory. Detecting changes within each color category was more difficult than across the categories. A multiple mechanism that processes color differences and categorical colors is briefly considered.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. G. Hanawalt, B. Post, “Memory trace for color,” J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “Comparison of successive with simultaneous color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43–56 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal detection of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs. simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “Test of hue memory,” J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance signals in visual memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. W. Jin, S. K. Shevell, “Color memory and color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1981–1991 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Bartleson, “Memory colors of familiar objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 73–77 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Dunker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52, 255–265 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Haper, “The perceptual modification of colored figures,” Am. J. Psychol. 66, 86–89 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Hendrick, B. Wallence, J. Tappenbeck, “Effect of cognitive set on color perception,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10, 487–484 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Spile, R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363–370 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Ranter, J. McCarthy, “Ecologically relevant stimuli and color memory,” J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 369–377 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 278–289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Uchikawa, K. Shinoda, “Influence of basic color categories on color memory discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 430–439 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Komatsu, “Neural coding of color and form in the inferior temporal cortex of the monkey,” Biomed. Res. 14, 7–13 (1993).
  21. E. Loftus, “Shifting human color memory,” Memory Cogn. 5, 696–699 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Colors in the recognition of natural scenes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S900 (1997).
  23. F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Some of experimental sessions were run with another personal computer (Macintosh IIci), with which the chromaticity coordinates of the display were (0.622, 0.341), (0.273, 0.605), and (0.151, 0.058), respectively, for the R, G, and B phosphors. The calibration procedure used here ensures that the difference in computers did not cause any problems. Considering the efficiency of image processing, the computer for the display system was exchanged for the machine described in text.
  25. As described later, for luminance contrast 100% contrast means an original distribution of luminance values; for concentrated contrast, the luminance distributions were categorized.
  26. Observers did not have any additional information in this interval.
  27. E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. A. Lucy, R. A. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” Am. Anthropol. 90, 923–931 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. The rating method was adopted because subjects reported difficulty in making a decision with conventional yes–no paradigm in preliminary observations.
  30. K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, H. Ujike, “Chromatic contrast enhancement of colored pictures in memory,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Portland, Oregon, September 10–15, 1995.
  31. K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Change in appearance of chromatic and luminance contrasts of colored pictures in human memory,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Japan 50, 714–724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Effects of hue change on memory for colored pictures,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.
  33. R. S. Nickerson, “Short-term memory or complex meaningful visual configurations: a demonstration of capacity,” Can. J. Psychol. 19, 155–160 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. N. Shepard, “Recognition memory for words, sentences, and pictures,” J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav. 6, 156–163 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Standing, J. Conezio, R. N. Haber, “Perception and memory for pictures: single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli,” Psychon. Sci. 19, 73–74 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  36. The 1931 CIE (x, y) coordinates of the test colors listed in Table I of Ref. 2 were regarded as the 100% chromatic contrast.
  37. L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 278–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Colors in the recognition of natural scenes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S900 (1997).

1996

K. Uchikawa, K. Shinoda, “Influence of basic color categories on color memory discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 430–439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Change in appearance of chromatic and luminance contrasts of colored pictures in human memory,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Japan 50, 714–724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Jin, S. K. Shevell, “Color memory and color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1981–1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Komatsu, “Neural coding of color and form in the inferior temporal cortex of the monkey,” Biomed. Res. 14, 7–13 (1993).

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1990

C. Ranter, J. McCarthy, “Ecologically relevant stimuli and color memory,” J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 369–377 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. A. Lucy, R. A. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” Am. Anthropol. 90, 923–931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs. simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal detection of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

E. Loftus, “Shifting human color memory,” Memory Cogn. 5, 696–699 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

L. Standing, J. Conezio, R. N. Haber, “Perception and memory for pictures: single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli,” Psychon. Sci. 19, 73–74 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. Spile, R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363–370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

C. Hendrick, B. Wallence, J. Tappenbeck, “Effect of cognitive set on color perception,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10, 487–484 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

R. N. Shepard, “Recognition memory for words, sentences, and pictures,” J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav. 6, 156–163 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

R. S. Nickerson, “Short-term memory or complex meaningful visual configurations: a demonstration of capacity,” Can. J. Psychol. 19, 155–160 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960

1957

1955

R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “Test of hue memory,” J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953

R. Haper, “The perceptual modification of colored figures,” Am. J. Psychol. 66, 86–89 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1942

N. G. Hanawalt, B. Post, “Memory trace for color,” J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1939

K. Dunker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52, 255–265 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Change in appearance of chromatic and luminance contrasts of colored pictures in human memory,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Japan 50, 714–724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, H. Ujike, “Chromatic contrast enhancement of colored pictures in memory,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Portland, Oregon, September 10–15, 1995.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Effects of hue change on memory for colored pictures,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

Baldovi´, R.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartleson, C. J.

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 278–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. W.

Burns, H. J.

E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Camps, V. J.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. R.

Conezio, J.

L. Standing, J. Conezio, R. N. Haber, “Perception and memory for pictures: single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli,” Psychon. Sci. 19, 73–74 (1970).
[CrossRef]

de Fez, M. D.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dunker, K.

K. Dunker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52, 255–265 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Fargo, L.

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Colors in the recognition of natural scenes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S900 (1997).

Haber, R. N.

L. Standing, J. Conezio, R. N. Haber, “Perception and memory for pictures: single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli,” Psychon. Sci. 19, 73–74 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hanawalt, N. G.

N. G. Hanawalt, B. Post, “Memory trace for color,” J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Haper, R.

R. Haper, “The perceptual modification of colored figures,” Am. J. Psychol. 66, 86–89 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Hendrick, C.

C. Hendrick, B. Wallence, J. Tappenbeck, “Effect of cognitive set on color perception,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10, 487–484 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal detection of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Isenberg, L. M.

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, E. W.

Komatsu, H.

H. Komatsu, “Neural coding of color and form in the inferior temporal cortex of the monkey,” Biomed. Res. 14, 7–13 (1993).

Legge, G. E.

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loftus, E.

E. Loftus, “Shifting human color memory,” Memory Cogn. 5, 696–699 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Loftus, E. F.

E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lucy, J. A.

J. A. Lucy, R. A. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” Am. Anthropol. 90, 923–931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luebker, A.

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, J.

C. Ranter, J. McCarthy, “Ecologically relevant stimuli and color memory,” J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 369–377 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. G.

E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, R. S.

R. S. Nickerson, “Short-term memory or complex meaningful visual configurations: a demonstration of capacity,” Can. J. Psychol. 19, 155–160 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Carpinell, J.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Post, B.

N. G. Hanawalt, B. Post, “Memory trace for color,” J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Ranter, C.

C. Ranter, J. McCarthy, “Ecologically relevant stimuli and color memory,” J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 369–377 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sachtler, W. L.

Sharpe, L. T.

F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, R. N.

R. N. Shepard, “Recognition memory for words, sentences, and pictures,” J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav. 6, 156–163 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shevell, S. K.

Shinoda, K.

K. Uchikawa, K. Shinoda, “Influence of basic color categories on color memory discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 430–439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shweder, R. A.

J. A. Lucy, R. A. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” Am. Anthropol. 90, 923–931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smallman, H. S.

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Soriano, J. C.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spile, P.

P. Spile, R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363–370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Springer, R. M.

P. Spile, R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363–370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Standing, L.

L. Standing, J. Conezio, R. N. Haber, “Perception and memory for pictures: single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli,” Psychon. Sci. 19, 73–74 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tappenbeck, J.

C. Hendrick, B. Wallence, J. Tappenbeck, “Effect of cognitive set on color perception,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10, 487–484 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarczali, T.

P. Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 278–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Change in appearance of chromatic and luminance contrasts of colored pictures in human memory,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Japan 50, 714–724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Shinoda, “Influence of basic color categories on color memory discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 430–439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs. simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal detection of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, H. Ujike, “Chromatic contrast enhancement of colored pictures in memory,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Portland, Oregon, September 10–15, 1995.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Effects of hue change on memory for colored pictures,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

Ujike, H.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, H. Ujike, “Chromatic contrast enhancement of colored pictures in memory,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Portland, Oregon, September 10–15, 1995.

Wallence, B.

C. Hendrick, B. Wallence, J. Tappenbeck, “Effect of cognitive set on color perception,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10, 487–484 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wichmann, F. A.

F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, L. H.

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaidi, Q.

Am. Anthropol.

J. A. Lucy, R. A. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” Am. Anthropol. 90, 923–931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychol.

K. Dunker, “The influence of past experience upon perceptual properties,” Am. J. Psychol. 52, 255–265 (1939).
[CrossRef]

R. Haper, “The perceptual modification of colored figures,” Am. J. Psychol. 66, 86–89 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Res.

H. Komatsu, “Neural coding of color and form in the inferior temporal cortex of the monkey,” Biomed. Res. 14, 7–13 (1993).

Can. J. Psychol.

R. S. Nickerson, “Short-term memory or complex meaningful visual configurations: a demonstration of capacity,” Can. J. Psychol. 19, 155–160 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl.

J. Pérez-Carpinell, M. D. de Fez, R. Baldovı́, J. C. Soriano, “Familiar objects and memory color,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 416–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 278–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, L. Fargo, C. X. Olson, H. S. Smallman, “Category effects in color memory,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Shinoda, “Influence of basic color categories on color memory discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 430–439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Pérez-Carpinell, V. J. Camps, M. D. de Fez, J. Castro, “Color memory matching in normal and red–green anomalous trichromat subjects,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 158–172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl.

K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Colors in the recognition of natural scenes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 38, S900 (1997).

J. Appl. Psychol.

R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “Test of hue memory,” J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol.

N. G. Hanawalt, B. Post, “Memory trace for color,” J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory

E. F. Loftus, D. G. Miller, H. J. Burns, “Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Learning Memory 4, 19–31 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform.

L. H. Wurm, G. E. Legge, L. M. Isenberg, A. Luebker, “Color improves object recognition in normal and low vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 19, 899–911 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn.

F. A. Wichmann, L. T. Sharpe, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cogn. 28, 509–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Psychol.

C. Ranter, J. McCarthy, “Ecologically relevant stimuli and color memory,” J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 369–377 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Television Eng. Japan

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Other

The 1931 CIE (x, y) coordinates of the test colors listed in Table I of Ref. 2 were regarded as the 100% chromatic contrast.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, “Effects of hue change on memory for colored pictures,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, October 20–24, 1996.

The rating method was adopted because subjects reported difficulty in making a decision with conventional yes–no paradigm in preliminary observations.

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, H. Ujike, “Chromatic contrast enhancement of colored pictures in memory,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Portland, Oregon, September 10–15, 1995.

Some of experimental sessions were run with another personal computer (Macintosh IIci), with which the chromaticity coordinates of the display were (0.622, 0.341), (0.273, 0.605), and (0.151, 0.058), respectively, for the R, G, and B phosphors. The calibration procedure used here ensures that the difference in computers did not cause any problems. Considering the efficiency of image processing, the computer for the display system was exchanged for the machine described in text.

As described later, for luminance contrast 100% contrast means an original distribution of luminance values; for concentrated contrast, the luminance distributions were categorized.

Observers did not have any additional information in this interval.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Samples of natural scene pictures. These images have no change in color and luminance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic explanation of definitions of the contrasts: (a) chromatic contrast, (b) luminance contrast and CL contrast, (c) focal concentrated contrast, (d) border concentrated contrast, and (e) nonborder concentrated contrast. For the luminance contrast, the chromaticities of all pixels were transformed to D65 white chromaticity to make a black-and-white image. For concentrated contrasts, categories in the middle of the diagram are the achromatic categories; the concentrations in the achromatic categories are invariant among the three kinds of concentrated contrasts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results for the memory-identification experiment (experiment 1) for (a) chromatic, (b) luminance, and (c) CL contrast. The abscissa shows the contrast values in the test phase; the ordinate shows the weighted response. The data were averaged over subjects. The left-hand panel of each figure shows the results of 0% (10% for luminance and CL contrast), 50%, and 100% contrast and the newly added picture; the right-hand panel shows results for 25% and 75% contrast. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results for memory identification for (a) focal, (b) border, and (c) nonborder contrasts. The abscissa shows concentrated contrast in the test phase; the ordinate shows the weighted response. In (a) and (b), the averaged results over subjects are shown; on the left, results for 0%, 50%, and 100% contrast in the memory phase and for the newly added picture; on the right, results for 25% and 75% contrast in the memory phase. In (c), on the left, each subject’s results for 0% contrast in the memory phase; on the right, the averaged results for 50% and 100% contrast in the memory phase. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results for simultaneous comparison: (a) chromatic, (b) luminance, and (c) CL contrast. The abscissa shows the contrast of the standard picture; the ordinate shows the weighted response. The different symbols correspond to the contrasts of the test pictures. The data were averaged over subjects. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results for simultaneous comparison: (a) focal, (b) border, and (c) nonborder contrast. Details as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimation by color difference between focal, border, and nonborder contrasts. The abscissa shows the color difference; the ordinate shows the weighted response. Each symbol shows a different concentrated contrast. Each column shows the difference between the contrast values in the memory phase: (a) 50%, (b) 100% contrast.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results for categorical color naming. Each symbol shows a different color category. Each panel shows the difference in the luminance level. A color name represents data that have at least four instances of naming over two sessions for three subjects. The focal colors were averaged over subjects’ matches.

Equations (1)

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weighted response = ( 2 × n 1 ) + ( 1 × n 2 ) - ( 1 × n 3 ) - ( 2 × n 4 ) N ,

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