Abstract

Monochromatic aberrations that exist in the human eye will cause differences in the appearance of the point-spread function (PSF) depending on whether there is positive or negative defocus. We establish whether it is possible to use these differences in the PSF to distinguish the direction of defocus. The monochromatic aberrations of eight subjects were measured with a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor. Subjects also performed a forced-choice psychophysical task in which they decided whether a blurred target was defocused in front of or behind the retina. The optical system for the psychophysical task was designed to isolate the blur due to monochromatic aberrations as the only odd-error cue to the direction of defocus. Shack–Hartmann measurements showed that monochromatic aberrations increase as the pupil size increases. On average, the correct/incorrect responses for discriminating differences in the PSF for different directions of defocus were 54/46 for a 1-mm pupil and 83/17 for a 5-mm pupil, representing more than an eight-fold increase in discriminability. This discriminability extended for large amounts of defocus and also for more complex targets, such as letters. Sensitivity to the differences in the PSF for different directions of defocus increased as monochromatic aberrations increased, particularly for the even-order aberrations, which give rise to an odd-error focus cue. It was found that the ability to discriminate PSFs for different directions of defocus varied among individuals but, in general, depended on the magnitude of monochromatic aberrations.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (2)

T. Park, J. A. Winawer, J. Wallman, “In a matter of minutes the eye can know which way to grow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 55 (2001).

M. C. W. Campbell, D. Priest, J. J. Hunter, “The importance of monochromatic aberrations to detecting defocus in retina images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 98 (2001).

1998 (2)

F. Wilkinson, H. R. Wilson, C. Habak, “Detection and recognition of radial frequency patterns,” Vision Res. 38, 3555–3568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, P. Artal, eds., feature topic, “Measurement and Correction of the Optical Aberrations of the Human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2445–2596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, “Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873–2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 398–404 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

F. Schaeffel, A. Glasser, H. C. Howland, “Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens,” Vision Res. 28, 639–657 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. B. Kruger, J. Pola, “Stimuli for accommodation: blur, chromatic aberration and size,” Vision Res. 26, 957–971 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1959 (1)

1951 (1)

E. F. Fincham, “The accommodation reflex and its stimulus,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 35, 381–393 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1801 (1)

T. Young, “On the mechanism of the eye,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 91, 23–88 (1801).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwala, K. R.

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Campbell, F. W.

Campbell, M. C. W.

M. C. W. Campbell, D. Priest, J. J. Hunter, “The importance of monochromatic aberrations to detecting defocus in retina images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 98 (2001).

Charman, W. N.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 398–404 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, J. Tucker, “Accommodation and color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 459–471 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dick, K.

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconer, S.

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, “The accommodation reflex and its stimulus,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 35, 381–393 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, A.

F. Schaeffel, A. Glasser, H. C. Howland, “Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens,” Vision Res. 28, 639–657 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Habak, C.

F. Wilkinson, H. R. Wilson, C. Habak, “Detection and recognition of radial frequency patterns,” Vision Res. 38, 3555–3568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924).

Howland, B.

Howland, H. C.

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaeffel, A. Glasser, H. C. Howland, “Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens,” Vision Res. 28, 639–657 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Howland, B. Howland, “A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1508–1518 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, J. J.

M. C. W. Campbell, D. Priest, J. J. Hunter, “The importance of monochromatic aberrations to detecting defocus in retina images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 98 (2001).

Katz, M.

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, P. B.

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Kruger, J. Pola, “Stimuli for accommodation: blur, chromatic aberration and size,” Vision Res. 26, 957–971 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Losada, M. A.

R. Navarro, M. A. Losada, “On the true shape of the optical point spread function in the human eye,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 66–69.

Mathews, S.

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

R. Navarro, M. A. Losada, “On the true shape of the optical point spread function in the human eye,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 66–69.

Nowbotsing, S.

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, T.

T. Park, J. A. Winawer, J. Wallman, “In a matter of minutes the eye can know which way to grow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 55 (2001).

Pola, J.

P. B. Kruger, J. Pola, “Stimuli for accommodation: blur, chromatic aberration and size,” Vision Res. 26, 957–971 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Priest, D.

M. C. W. Campbell, D. Priest, J. J. Hunter, “The importance of monochromatic aberrations to detecting defocus in retina images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 98 (2001).

Schaeffel, F.

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaeffel, A. Glasser, H. C. Howland, “Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens,” Vision Res. 28, 639–657 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Troilo, D.

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tscherning, M.

M. Tscherning, Physiologic Optics, C. Weiland, ed., 4th ed. (Keystone, Philadelphia, Pa., 1924).

Tucker, J.

Wallman, J.

T. Park, J. A. Winawer, J. Wallman, “In a matter of minutes the eye can know which way to grow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 55 (2001).

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 398–404 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

Wildsoet, C. F.

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, F.

F. Wilkinson, H. R. Wilson, C. Habak, “Detection and recognition of radial frequency patterns,” Vision Res. 38, 3555–3568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, H. R.

F. Wilkinson, H. R. Wilson, C. Habak, “Detection and recognition of radial frequency patterns,” Vision Res. 38, 3555–3568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winawer, J. A.

T. Park, J. A. Winawer, J. Wallman, “In a matter of minutes the eye can know which way to grow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 55 (2001).

Young, T.

T. Young, “On the mechanism of the eye,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 91, 23–88 (1801).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

E. F. Fincham, “The accommodation reflex and its stimulus,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 35, 381–393 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (2)

T. Park, J. A. Winawer, J. Wallman, “In a matter of minutes the eye can know which way to grow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 55 (2001).

M. C. W. Campbell, D. Priest, J. J. Hunter, “The importance of monochromatic aberrations to detecting defocus in retina images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, 98 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, “The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9, 398–404 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

T. Young, “On the mechanism of the eye,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 91, 23–88 (1801).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (5)

P. B. Kruger, J. Pola, “Stimuli for accommodation: blur, chromatic aberration and size,” Vision Res. 26, 957–971 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Kruger, S. Mathews, M. Katz, K. R. Aggarwala, S. Nowbotsing, “Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus,” Vision Res. 37, 2511–2526 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schaeffel, A. Glasser, H. C. Howland, “Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens,” Vision Res. 28, 639–657 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Wildsoet, H. C. Howland, S. Falconer, K. Dick, “Chromatic aberration and accommodation:  their role in emmetropization in the chick,” Vision Res. 33, 1593–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wilkinson, H. R. Wilson, C. Habak, “Detection and recognition of radial frequency patterns,” Vision Res. 38, 3555–3568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

F. Schaeffel, D. Troilo, J. Wallman, H. C. Howland, “Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 177–183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Tscherning, Physiologic Optics, C. Weiland, ed., 4th ed. (Keystone, Philadelphia, Pa., 1924).

R. Navarro, M. A. Losada, “On the true shape of the optical point spread function in the human eye,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 66–69.

H. Helmholtz, Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

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