Abstract

With the use of optical near-field techniques, it is now possible to excite or observe surface plasmons with high lateral resolution. A theoretical study is presented of surface plasmon excitation by near-field optical probes and the influence of well-defined structures on surface plasmon propagation and surface plasmon detection in the far field. The generation and the diffraction of the surface plasmon is calculated by using a theoretical scheme founded upon a first-order perturbation expansion of the Rayleigh–Fano method. A very good agreement is obtained between numerical and experimental results. The theoretical tools used should prove a useful guideline for future experiments of nanooptics with surface plasmons.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.
  2. M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. I. Tatarski, “Relation between the Rayleigh equation in diffraction theory and the equation based on Green’s formula,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1254–1260 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Surface structure and polariton interactions in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting grating: theory for the reflection photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 785–795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (5)

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Surface structure and polariton interactions in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting grating: theory for the reflection photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 785–795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (6)

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Tatarski, “Relation between the Rayleigh equation in diffraction theory and the equation based on Green’s formula,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1254–1260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Auvil, P. W.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bozevolnaya, E. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckert, R.

Freyland, J. M.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, W. M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzelmann, H.

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, J. A.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huser, Th.

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterson, J. B.

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, Th.

Lundquist, P. M.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikrut, J. M.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. J.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Novikov, I. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedarnig, J. D.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pincemin, F.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pudonin, F. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. W.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Specht, M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarski, V. I.

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Commun. (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for far-field imaging the spatial distribution of a localized excited surface plasmon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of the TNOM microscope: far-field detection into one direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spatial distribution of the intensity [with Eqs. (10)] on the metal–glass interface with a localized excited surface plasmon. The tip radius is equal to 50 nm, and the tip–sample distance is set to 10 nm. The two lobes are oriented along the x direction, i.e., the direction of the incident beam polarization in the tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section along the x axis made on the images of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental microscope image (NA=1.4, 63×, λ=632 nm) of the surface plasmon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical images obtained with Eqs. (10) over an area of 70 μm×70 μm. The saturation level is set to 2% of the maximum of the intensity. The two lobes are in the direction of the polarization of the incident beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between theoretical and experimental TNOM images of the same object.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TNOM theoretical images obtained with Eq. (14) over an area of 10 μm×10 μm. The object is a periodic 2D grating (5 μm) made of square grooves similar to the experimental ones. The probe aperture is equal to 100 nm. Parts (a) and (b) are calculated for a pointlike detector (without integration) in the allowed and the forbidden region, respectively, and parts (c) and (d) are the corresponding images obtained with integration over ψD and θD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the spectra of the transmitted field: (a) allowed light (θD=0) and (b) forbidden light (θD=θSP).

Equations (27)

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z=P(x, y)=14π2-+×exp[i(ux+vy)]P˜(u, v)dudv.
Em(r)=14π2-+[Em(q)exp(iwmz)+Em(q)exp(-iwmz)]×exp(iqρ)dq(m=1, 2, 3).
wm=mω2c2-q21/2
with Re(wm)0,Im(wm)0.
Em(q)=Fm(q)+Dm(q),Em(q)=Fm(q)+Dm(q).
[E0(x, y; RT=0)]x=-4iω3πc2a2-x2-2y2a2-x2-y2 EL[E0(x, y; RT=0)]y=-4iω3πcxya2-x2-y2 EL
for x2+y2<a,
E0(x, y)=0 for x2+y2>a.
E0(x, y; RT=0)=14π2-+F0(q)exp(iqρ)dq.
[F0(q)]x=-8iωa3EL3ccos(aq) -3v2a2q4+sin(aq)3v2a3q5+u2aq3,
[F0(q)]y=-8iωa3EL3ccos(aq) 3uva2q4+sin(aq)-3vua3q5+uvaq3.
Einc(x, y, z=0; RT)=14π2-+F0(q)×exp{i[u(x-xT)+v(y-yT)+iw1|zT|]}dq.
x-xT=ρ cos ψ,y-yT=ρ sin ψ,
u=q cos ϕ,v=sin ϕ.
Ex(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2ccos2(ψ)0α(q)J0(qρ)q dq-sin2(ψ)0β(q)J0(qρ)q dq-cos(2ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)] J1(qρ)qρ q dq,
Ey(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2csin(ψ)cos(ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)]2J1(qρ)qρ-J0(qρ)q dq,
Ey(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2csin(ψ)cos(ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)]2J1(qρ)qρ-J0(qρ)q dq,
Ez(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2c-i cos(ψ)0q2α(q)w3 J1(qρ)dq,
α(q)=tTM(q) sin(aq)aq1w33w1exp(+iw1|zT|+iw3z),
β(q)=tTE(q) 3[aq cos(aq)-sin(aq)](aq)3×exp(+iw1|zT|+iw3z).
tl(q)=t12lt23lexp[i(w2-w3)e]1+r12lr23lexp(2iw2e),l=TEorTM,
t12TE=2w1w1+w2,r12TE=w1-w2w1+w2,
t23TE=2w2w2+w3,r23TE=w2-w3w2+w3,
t12TM=22w12w1+1w2,r12TM=2w1-1w22w1+1w2,
t23TE=23w23w2+2w3,r23TM=3w2-2w33w2+2w3.
I(ρ, ψ)=A cos2(ψ)J02(ρqSP)-J0(ρqSP)J1(ρqSP)2ρqSP+BJ12(ρqSP)+CJ12(ρqSP)ρqSP,
dIDdΩ=τ3cwD232π2 |E3(kD)|2,

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