Abstract

With the use of optical near-field techniques, it is now possible to excite or observe surface plasmons with high lateral resolution. A theoretical study is presented of surface plasmon excitation by near-field optical probes and the influence of well-defined structures on surface plasmon propagation and surface plasmon detection in the far field. The generation and the diffraction of the surface plasmon is calculated by using a theoretical scheme founded upon a first-order perturbation expansion of the Rayleigh–Fano method. A very good agreement is obtained between numerical and experimental results. The theoretical tools used should prove a useful guideline for future experiments of nanooptics with surface plasmons.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.
  2. M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. I. Tatarski, “Relation between the Rayleigh equation in diffraction theory and the equation based on Green’s formula,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1254–1260 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Surface structure and polariton interactions in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting grating: theory for the reflection photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 785–795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (5)

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Surface structure and polariton interactions in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting grating: theory for the reflection photon scanning tunneling microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 785–795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (6)

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Tatarski, “Relation between the Rayleigh equation in diffraction theory and the equation based on Green’s formula,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1254–1260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Auvil, P. W.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bozevolnaya, E. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckert, R.

Freyland, J. M.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, W. M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzelmann, H.

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, J. A.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huser, Th.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterson, J. B.

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

Y. K. Kim, J. B. Ketterson, D. J. Morgan, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope operation in atomic force microscope mode,” Opt. Lett. 21, 165–167 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, Th.

Lundquist, P. M.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikrut, J. M.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. J.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Novikov, I. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedarnig, J. D.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pincemin, F.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pudonin, F. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. W.

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Specht, M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarski, V. I.

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, F. Baida, “Optical characterization of nanosources used in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 695–703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. K. Kim, P. M. Lundquist, J. A. Helfrich, J. M. Mikrut, G. K. Wong, P. W. Auvil, J. B. Ketterson, “Scanning plasmon optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3407–3409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1798–1806 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, J. M. Freyland, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Commun. (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, D. Barchiesi, D. Courjon, “A theoretical model for the inverse scanning tunneling optical microscope (ISTOM),” Opt. Commun. 114, 470–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, J. J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy. A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation and edge interaction using a three-dimensional Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, L. Novotny, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interferences of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

P. Dawson, K. W. Smith, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 287–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “Tunnel near field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, J. M. Vigoureux, “A theoretical study of near-field detection and excitation of surface plasmons,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 351–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 111.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for far-field imaging the spatial distribution of a localized excited surface plasmon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of the TNOM microscope: far-field detection into one direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spatial distribution of the intensity [with Eqs. (10)] on the metal–glass interface with a localized excited surface plasmon. The tip radius is equal to 50 nm, and the tip–sample distance is set to 10 nm. The two lobes are oriented along the x direction, i.e., the direction of the incident beam polarization in the tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section along the x axis made on the images of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental microscope image (NA=1.4, 63×, λ=632 nm) of the surface plasmon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical images obtained with Eqs. (10) over an area of 70 μm×70 μm. The saturation level is set to 2% of the maximum of the intensity. The two lobes are in the direction of the polarization of the incident beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between theoretical and experimental TNOM images of the same object.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TNOM theoretical images obtained with Eq. (14) over an area of 10 μm×10 μm. The object is a periodic 2D grating (5 μm) made of square grooves similar to the experimental ones. The probe aperture is equal to 100 nm. Parts (a) and (b) are calculated for a pointlike detector (without integration) in the allowed and the forbidden region, respectively, and parts (c) and (d) are the corresponding images obtained with integration over ψD and θD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the spectra of the transmitted field: (a) allowed light (θD=0) and (b) forbidden light (θD=θSP).

Equations (27)

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z=P(x, y)=14π2-+×exp[i(ux+vy)]P˜(u, v)dudv.
Em(r)=14π2-+[Em(q)exp(iwmz)+Em(q)exp(-iwmz)]×exp(iqρ)dq(m=1, 2, 3).
wm=mω2c2-q21/2
with Re(wm)0,Im(wm)0.
Em(q)=Fm(q)+Dm(q),Em(q)=Fm(q)+Dm(q).
[E0(x, y; RT=0)]x=-4iω3πc2a2-x2-2y2a2-x2-y2 EL[E0(x, y; RT=0)]y=-4iω3πcxya2-x2-y2 EL
for x2+y2<a,
E0(x, y)=0 for x2+y2>a.
E0(x, y; RT=0)=14π2-+F0(q)exp(iqρ)dq.
[F0(q)]x=-8iωa3EL3ccos(aq) -3v2a2q4+sin(aq)3v2a3q5+u2aq3,
[F0(q)]y=-8iωa3EL3ccos(aq) 3uva2q4+sin(aq)-3vua3q5+uvaq3.
Einc(x, y, z=0; RT)=14π2-+F0(q)×exp{i[u(x-xT)+v(y-yT)+iw1|zT|]}dq.
x-xT=ρ cos ψ,y-yT=ρ sin ψ,
u=q cos ϕ,v=sin ϕ.
Ex(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2ccos2(ψ)0α(q)J0(qρ)q dq-sin2(ψ)0β(q)J0(qρ)q dq-cos(2ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)] J1(qρ)qρ q dq,
Ey(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2csin(ψ)cos(ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)]2J1(qρ)qρ-J0(qρ)q dq,
Ey(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2csin(ψ)cos(ψ)0[α(q)+β(q)]2J1(qρ)qρ-J0(qρ)q dq,
Ez(ρ, ψ, z)=-8iωa3EL6π2c-i cos(ψ)0q2α(q)w3 J1(qρ)dq,
α(q)=tTM(q) sin(aq)aq1w33w1exp(+iw1|zT|+iw3z),
β(q)=tTE(q) 3[aq cos(aq)-sin(aq)](aq)3×exp(+iw1|zT|+iw3z).
tl(q)=t12lt23lexp[i(w2-w3)e]1+r12lr23lexp(2iw2e),l=TEorTM,
t12TE=2w1w1+w2,r12TE=w1-w2w1+w2,
t23TE=2w2w2+w3,r23TE=w2-w3w2+w3,
t12TM=22w12w1+1w2,r12TM=2w1-1w22w1+1w2,
t23TE=23w23w2+2w3,r23TM=3w2-2w33w2+2w3.
I(ρ, ψ)=A cos2(ψ)J02(ρqSP)-J0(ρqSP)J1(ρqSP)2ρqSP+BJ12(ρqSP)+CJ12(ρqSP)ρqSP,
dIDdΩ=τ3cwD232π2 |E3(kD)|2,

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