Abstract

To explain the wavelength dependence of the directional sensitivity of human foveal cones (Stiles–Crawford I effect) we extended an existing fundus reflectance model for calculation of the total absorption by visual pigment. We took experimental data from literature for both the psychophysical and the optical Stiles–Crawford effect and optimized parameters to fit the experimental data. The wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect could be well described with the geometrical optics model. Essential elements are self-screening and the inclusion of backscattered choroidal light for perception.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Stiles, “The luminous sensitivity of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and the cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. W. Dunnewold, “On the Campbell and Stiles–Crawford effect and their clinical importance,” Ph.D. dissertation (Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1964).
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  7. M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  28. J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. C. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. F. C. Delori, K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  36. A. van Meeteren, C. J. W. Dunnewold, “Image quality of the human eye for eccentric entrance pupils,” Vision Res. 23, 573–579 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. C. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique method for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

A. van Meeteren, C. J. W. Dunnewold, “Image quality of the human eye for eccentric entrance pupils,” Vision Res. 23, 573–579 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. J. Vos, F. L. van Os, “The effect of lens density on the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 749–751 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

A. W. Snyder, C. Pask, “The Stiles–Crawford effect, explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13, 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

S. S. Miller, “Psychophysical estimates of visual pigment densities in dichromats,” Vision Res. 223, 89–107 (1972).

1971 (2)

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968).
[PubMed]

1966 (1)

P. L. Walraven, “Recovery from the increase of the Stiles–Crawford effect after bleaching,” Nature 210, 311–312 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

N. D. Miller, “The changes in the Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and the cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous sensitivity of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983).
[PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bouman, M. A.

Burns, S. A.

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLint, P. J.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

DeMarco, P.

Dunnewold, C. J. W.

A. van Meeteren, C. J. W. Dunnewold, “Image quality of the human eye for eccentric entrance pupils,” Vision Res. 23, 573–579 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. W. Dunnewold, “On the Campbell and Stiles–Crawford effect and their clinical importance,” Ph.D. dissertation (Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1964).

Elsner, A. E.

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique method for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J. C.

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, N. D.

N. D. Miller, “The changes in the Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. S.

S. S. Miller, “Psychophysical estimates of visual pigment densities in dichromats,” Vision Res. 223, 89–107 (1972).

Nerger, J. L.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. 29, 115–128 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder, C. Pask, “The Stiles–Crawford effect, explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13, 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflibsen, K. P.

Pokorny, J.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. S.

R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968).
[PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, C. Pask, “The Stiles–Crawford effect, explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13, 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, M. N.

R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968).
[PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivities of the rods and the cones,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 127, 64–105 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous sensitivity of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Tamaki, R.

M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983).
[PubMed]

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van de Kraats, J.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kruysbergen, J.

W. Wijngaard, J. van Kruysbergen, “The function of the nonguided light in some explanations of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 175–183.

van Meeteren, A.

A. van Meeteren, C. J. W. Dunnewold, “Image quality of the human eye for eccentric entrance pupils,” Vision Res. 23, 573–579 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats,” J. Physiol. 492, 307–314 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Os, F. L.

J. J. Vos, F. L. van Os, “The effect of lens density on the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 749–751 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, F. L. van Os, “The effect of lens density on the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 749–751 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, “Recovery from the increase of the Stiles–Crawford effect after bleaching,” Nature 210, 311–312 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, M. A. Bouman, “Relation between sensitivity and spectral response curves in human cone vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780–784 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, “Directional sensitivity of the cone systems in normals and anomalous color vision,” in Basis and Clinical Applications of Vision Science, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 73–76.

Wijngaard, W.

W. Wijngaard, J. van Kruysbergen, “The function of the nonguided light in some explanations of the Stiles–Crawford effect,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 175–183.

Wu, S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. S. Smith, M. N. Stein, “Ocular hazards of transscleral laser radiation. I. Spectral reflection and transmission of the sclera, choroid, and retina,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 21–31 (1968).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. (1)

N. D. Miller, “The changes in the Stiles–Crawford effect with high luminance adapting fields,” Am. J. Optom. 41, 599–608 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 282–289 (2000).

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Physiol. (2)

M. Alpern, R. Tamaki, “The saturation of monochromatic lights obliquely incident on the retina,” J. Physiol. 338, 669–691 (1983).
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength dependence of the peakedness, ρp, for the retinal psychophysical SC effect. Data points are taken from Stiles2 (1-deg field size, diamonds), Stiles3 (1-deg field size, squares), Enoch and Stiles4 (1-deg field size, triangles), Alpern and Tamaki7 (1-deg field size, crosses), and Wijngaard and van Kruysbergen6 (1-deg field size, circles). Lines serve as a guide for the eye. To facilitate comparison of the data, they were each transformed to an effect at the retina, to account for changes of lens transmission with pupil position (for details see text). The different heights may be attributed to experimental conditions differing in particular in field size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the peakedness, ρp, for the psychophysical SC effect. The irregular curve represents the mean of all experimental data, as determined by linear spline averaging. Error bars are inserted at several representative wavelengths, indicating how the shape as a function of wavelength of the mean deviates from the shape of the individual studies. The bold curve is calculated with inclusion of backscattered light from the choroid. The thin smooth curve is calculated in the absence of backscattered light. For details, see text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Model calculation of the wavelength dependence of the peakedness, ρo, for the optical SC effect. Data points are the mean of five subjects from DeLint et al.23 for the bleached (open squares) and the dark-adapted (solid squares) condition. The bold curve is calculated for the dark-adapted condition, the thin line for the bleached condition. Bars show standard errors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peakedness, ρo, of the optical SC effect as a function of field size from data of DeLint et al.23 at 514 nm (diamonds, dotted curve), and 633 nm (squares, solid curve). The dashed curve (solid circles) are data points from Burns et al.30 at 543 nm. The single points are from Gorrand and Delori19 at 543 nm (cross), van Blokland17 at 514 nm (triangle), and Burns et al.18 at 543 nm (plus sign), and He et al.31 at 543 nm (circle). Bars show standard errors. For additional experimental details, see text.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameter Values Used in the Model Calculation a

Equations (6)

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Abs1(x, λ)=Dvp(λ){1-10-[Dvp(λ)+Desc(x)+Ddisk]}Dvp(λ)+Desc(x)+Ddisk.
Abs2(λ)=Dvp(λ){1-10-[Dvp(λ)+Ddisk]}Dvp(λ)+Ddisk.
Abs(x, λ)=Tpre-vp(λ){Abs1(x, λ)+[Ttot(x, λ)+Etot(x,λ)]Rdeep(λ)Abs2(λ)}.
ρp=1x2logAbs(0, λ)Abs(x, λ).
R(x, λ)=Tom(λ){Rilm+(1-Rilm)210-2Dmp(λ)×(Rdisk(x, λ)+[Ttot(x, λ)+Etot(x, λ)]Rdeep(λ))}.
ρo=1x2logR(0, λ)-Rnd(λ)R(x, λ)-Rnd(λ).

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