Abstract

A series of experiments were carried out to reveal determinants for the mode of color appearance by measuring the upper-limit luminance of a color chip for the surface-color mode. We used a CRT color monitor to present test and surround stimuli in the surface-color mode. The stimuli were composed of a three-by-three array of color chips on a gray background with a white frame. The observer increased the luminance of a center test color until it just ceased to appear in the surface-color mode. Our results show that this upper-limit luminance was different among test colors, but their brightnesses, calculated from the luminance and brightness/luminance values, were almost the same and were slightly below the brightness of the white frame. The existence of the surrounding color chips affected the results, but their sizes and spatial arrangements did not. When all of the luminances of the surrounds changed equally, the upper-limit luminances of the test colors for the surface-color mode appearance changed by the same ratio. This result indicates that the brightness of a target was a determinant for selecting the mode of color appearance and that the brightest surround stimulus acted as a cue for determining the judgment.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

1948 (1)

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwell, K. T.

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Brainard, D. H.

Bruno, N.

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchsbaum, G.

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R. M.

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gelb, A.

A. Gelb, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1929).

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Katz, D.

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

Kim, C. Y.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koida, K.

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Kossyfidis, C.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, I.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Kweon, I. S.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lie, I.

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meguro, T.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Mizokami, Y.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. P.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

Seo, Y. S.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, H.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinomori, K.

Spehar, B.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speigle, J. M.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Swenholt, B. K.

Uchikawa, H.

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Ullman, S.

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallach, H.

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yamauchi, Y.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (5)

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (2)

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. (1)

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scand. J. Psychol. (1)

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision (1)

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

Vision Res. (1)

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

A. Gelb, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1929).

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