Abstract

A series of experiments were carried out to reveal determinants for the mode of color appearance by measuring the upper-limit luminance of a color chip for the surface-color mode. We used a CRT color monitor to present test and surround stimuli in the surface-color mode. The stimuli were composed of a three-by-three array of color chips on a gray background with a white frame. The observer increased the luminance of a center test color until it just ceased to appear in the surface-color mode. Our results show that this upper-limit luminance was different among test colors, but their brightnesses, calculated from the luminance and brightness/luminance values, were almost the same and were slightly below the brightness of the white frame. The existence of the surrounding color chips affected the results, but their sizes and spatial arrangements did not. When all of the luminances of the surrounds changed equally, the upper-limit luminances of the test colors for the surface-color mode appearance changed by the same ratio. This result indicates that the brightness of a target was a determinant for selecting the mode of color appearance and that the brightest surround stimulus acted as a cue for determining the judgment.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Gelb, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1929).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

J. M. Speigle, D. H. Brainard, “Luminosity thresholds: effects of test chromaticity and ambient illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 436–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

1948 (1)

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwell, K. T.

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Brainard, D. H.

Bruno, N.

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchsbaum, G.

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R. M.

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gelb, A.

A. Gelb, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1929).

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, A. L.

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Katz, D.

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

Kim, C. Y.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koida, K.

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Kossyfidis, C.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, I.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Kweon, I. S.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lie, I.

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meguro, T.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Mizokami, Y.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. P.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

Seo, Y. S.

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, H.

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinomori, K.

Spehar, B.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speigle, J. M.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Swenholt, B. K.

Uchikawa, H.

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Ullman, S.

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallach, H.

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yamauchi, Y.

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

S. Ullman, “On visual detection of light sources,” Biol. Cybern. 21, 205–212 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (5)

A. P. Petrov, C. Y. Kim, I. S. Kweon, Y. S. Seo, “Perceived illumination measured,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. G. Hunt, “A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 95–112 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Fairchild, “Considering the surround in device-independent color imaging,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 352–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, “Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors,” Color Res. Appl. 9, 5–14 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Blackwell, G. Buchsbaum, “The effect of spatial and chromatic parameters on chromatic induction,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 166–173 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (2)

A. L. Gilchrist, F. Bonato, “Anchoring of lightness values in center-surround displays,” J. Exp. Psychol. 21, 1427–1440 (1995).

H. Wallach, “Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310–324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. (1)

Y. Yamauchi, K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, “Luminance limit for surface-color perception,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Telecommun. Eng. 52, 227–234 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Ikeda, H. Shinoda, Y. Mizokami, “Three dimensionality of the recognized visual space of illumination proved by hidden illumination,” Opt. Rev. 5, 200–205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

T. Agostini, N. Bruno, “Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays,” Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250–258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

F. Bonato, A. L. Gilchrist, “The perception of luminosity on different backgrounds and in different illuminations,” Perception 23, 991–1006 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. 106, 795–834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scand. J. Psychol. (1)

I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision (1)

K. Koida, K. Uchikawa, “Comparison in chromatic characteristics of modes of appearance and brightness for colored lights,” Vision 8, 143–148 (1996).

Vision Res. (1)

H. Uchikawa, K. Uchikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors,” Vision Res. 29, 881–890 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. Gelb, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1929).

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, London, 1935).

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights” (manuscript available from the authors).

P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the stimuli used in experiment 1. (a) No-surround condition, (b) Array-surround condition. In the no-surround condition, only a test color was presented on the achromatic background, and in the array-surround condition, the stimulus was composed of a three-by-three array of 2-deg simulated color chips with a white frame on an achromatic background. The test patch was located at the center of the array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromaticities used in the experiments as a test color. Each test color is referred to by a number within the figure. The triangle shows the gamut of the CRT color monitor.  

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean upper-limit luminances for the surface-color mode obtained in experiment 1 across all observers. (a) No-surround condition, (b) array-surround condition. Circles, black background; squares, gray background; triangles, white background. The abscissa indicates the test color numbers defined in Fig. 2, and the ordinate indicates the luminance in candelas per square meter. The mean standard deviation across test colors and observers is shown by stimulus number 1 with the gray background. Maximum and minimum standard deviations are shown by stimulus numbers 12 and 14, respectively, with the gray background. The right-hand panel shows the luminances of the surround stimuli.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the stimulus used in experiment 2. See text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean B/L (on a log scale) obtained from experiment 2 for all observers for each test color. Squares, gray background; triangles, white background. The mean standard deviation across test colors was calculated for each observer, and its average value is shown in the figure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean equivalent luminance of each test color obtained in experiments 1 and 2 for all observers. The ordinate indicates the equivalent luminance of an equally bright white reference on a log scale. Squares, gray background; triangles, white background. The abscissa indicates the test color number defined in Fig. 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean upper-limit luminances for the surface-color mode across all observers obtained in experiment 3. Results are from (a) the replacement condition, (b) the size-change condition, and (c) the interval-change condition. The abscissa indicates the test color numbers defined in Fig. 2, and the ordinate indicates the luminance in candelas per square meter. See text for the explanation of the symbols for each panel and for details.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean upper-limit luminances for the surface-color mode across all observers obtained in experiment 4. Circles, decrement condition; squares, nominal condition; triangles, increment conditions. The abscissa indicates the test color numbers defined in Fig. 2, and the ordinate indicates the luminance in candelas per square meter. The right-hand panel shows the luminances of the surround stimuli in each condition.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean equivalent luminance of each test color at the limit of the surface-color mode for all subjects obtained in experiments 2 and 4. The ordinate indicates the brightness of the equivalent bright white reference at the upper limit for the surface-color mode on a log scale. Circles, decrement condition; squares, nominal condition; triangles, increment condition. The abscissa indicates the test color number. The equivalent luminance of the surround colors in each condition is shown in the right-hand panel.  

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Equivalent-brightness reflectance at the limit of the surface-color mode from experiments 1 and 2. Squares with solid curve correspond to a gray background; triangles with solid curve correspond to a white background and are the equivalent reflectances to BaSO4. Open diamonds with dotted curve correspond to a gray background; solid diamonds with dotted curve correspond to a white background and are the equivalent reflectances of the white frame. The abscissa indicates the test color numbers defined in Fig. 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Constant-luminance loci of the limit of the surface-color mode in the 1931 CIE x,y chromaticity diagram, calculated from the results in a gray background of the array-surround condition in experiment 1. Connected lines indicate the constant luminance locus in 2.5 cd/m2 steps. The numbers shown at each locus indicate the luminance value in candelas per square meter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chromaticities of the Colors Used in the Experiment As the Surround Stimuli and Three Achromatic Colors in the Background

Metrics