Abstract

The spatial distributions of melanin and hemoglobin in human skin are separated by independent-component analysis of a skin color image. The analysis is based on the skin color model with three assumptions: (1) Spatial variation of color in the skin is caused by two pigments, melanin and hemoglobin; (2) the quantities of the two pigments are mutually independent spatially; and (3) linearity holds among the quantities and the observed color signals in the optical density domain. The results of the separation agree well with physiological knowledge. The separated components are synthesized to simulate the various facial color images by changing the quantities of the two separated pigments.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. G. H. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour (Fountain, London, 1995).
  2. F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).
  3. Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.
  4. P. Hanarahan, W. Krueger, “Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 165–174.
  5. M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics in human skin,” Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Edwards, S. Q. Duntley, “The pigments and color of living human skin,” Am. J. Anat. 65, 1–33 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.
  10. T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.
  11. G. Burel, “Blind separation of sources: a nonlinear neural algorithm,” Neural Networks 5, 937–947 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hyvärinen, E. Oja, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Jutten, J. Hearult, “Blind separation of sources, part I: an adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Process. 24, 1–10 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. H. Yang, S. Amari, “Adaptive online learning algorithms for blind separation: maximum entropy and minimum mutual information,” Neural Comput. 9, 1457–1482 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Garce, MatlabOptimization Toolbox User’s Guide (The MathWorks, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  18. P. J. Dwyer, R. R. Anderson, C. A. DiMarzio, “Mapping blood oxygen saturation using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technolgies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds. Proc. SPIE2976, 270–280 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Hyvärinen, E. Oja, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Yang, S. Amari, “Adaptive online learning algorithms for blind separation: maximum entropy and minimum mutual information,” Neural Comput. 9, 1457–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

1993 (1)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. Burel, “Blind separation of sources: a nonlinear neural algorithm,” Neural Networks 5, 937–947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Jutten, J. Hearult, “Blind separation of sources, part I: an adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Process. 24, 1–10 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics in human skin,” Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

E. A. Edwards, S. Q. Duntley, “The pigments and color of living human skin,” Am. J. Anat. 65, 1–33 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Amari, S.

H. H. Yang, S. Amari, “Adaptive online learning algorithms for blind separation: maximum entropy and minimum mutual information,” Neural Comput. 9, 1457–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics in human skin,” Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dwyer, R. R. Anderson, C. A. DiMarzio, “Mapping blood oxygen saturation using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technolgies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds. Proc. SPIE2976, 270–280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burel, G.

G. Burel, “Blind separation of sources: a nonlinear neural algorithm,” Neural Networks 5, 937–947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMarzio, C. A.

P. J. Dwyer, R. R. Anderson, C. A. DiMarzio, “Mapping blood oxygen saturation using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technolgies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds. Proc. SPIE2976, 270–280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duntley, S. Q.

E. A. Edwards, S. Q. Duntley, “The pigments and color of living human skin,” Am. J. Anat. 65, 1–33 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Dwyer, P. J.

P. J. Dwyer, R. R. Anderson, C. A. DiMarzio, “Mapping blood oxygen saturation using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technolgies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds. Proc. SPIE2976, 270–280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E. A.

E. A. Edwards, S. Q. Duntley, “The pigments and color of living human skin,” Am. J. Anat. 65, 1–33 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, Y.

T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.

Garce, A.

A. Garce, MatlabOptimization Toolbox User’s Guide (The MathWorks, Boston, Mass., 1992).

Hanarahan, P.

P. Hanarahan, W. Krueger, “Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 165–174.

Haneishi, H.

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

Hayashi, J.

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

Hearult, J.

C. Jutten, J. Hearult, “Blind separation of sources, part I: an adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Process. 24, 1–10 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, R. W. G. H.

R. W. G. H. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour (Fountain, London, 1995).

Hurri, J.

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

Hyvarinen, A.

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

Hyvärinen, A.

A. Hyvärinen, E. Oja, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.

Itoh, K.

T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.

Iwama, R.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joutensalo, J.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jutten, C.

C. Jutten, J. Hearult, “Blind separation of sources, part I: an adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Process. 24, 1–10 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Karhunen, J.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

Komiya, Y.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, W.

P. Hanarahan, W. Krueger, “Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 165–174.

Miyake, Y.

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

Obi, T.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, Y.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oja, E.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hyvärinen, E. Oja, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics in human skin,” Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

Star, W. M.

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternborg, H. J. C. M.

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsumura, N.

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vigário, R.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

Wang, L.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. H.

H. H. Yang, S. Amari, “Adaptive online learning algorithms for blind separation: maximum entropy and minimum mutual information,” Neural Comput. 9, 1457–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, Y.

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

Zee, P. v. d.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Anat. (1)

E. A. Edwards, S. Q. Duntley, “The pigments and color of living human skin,” Am. J. Anat. 65, 1–33 (1939).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, W. M. Star, “Skin Optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. (1)

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigário, J. Joutensalo, “A class of neural networks for independent component analysis,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 486–504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics in human skin,” Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

F. H. Imai, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 422–430 (1996).

Neural Comput. (2)

H. H. Yang, S. Amari, “Adaptive online learning algorithms for blind separation: maximum entropy and minimum mutual information,” Neural Comput. 9, 1457–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hyvärinen, E. Oja, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neural Networks (1)

G. Burel, “Blind separation of sources: a nonlinear neural algorithm,” Neural Networks 5, 937–947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. v. d. Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Signal Process. (1)

C. Jutten, J. Hearult, “Blind separation of sources, part I: an adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Process. 24, 1–10 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

R. W. G. H. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour (Fountain, London, 1995).

A. Garce, MatlabOptimization Toolbox User’s Guide (The MathWorks, Boston, Mass., 1992).

P. J. Dwyer, R. R. Anderson, C. A. DiMarzio, “Mapping blood oxygen saturation using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technolgies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds. Proc. SPIE2976, 270–280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, J. Hayashi, M. Saito, “A new color management system based on human perception and its application to recording and reproduction of art printing,” in Proceedings of IS&T/SID 5th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science & Technology, Springfield, Va., 1997), pp. 169–172.

P. Hanarahan, W. Krueger, “Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 165–174.

M. Yamaguchi, R. Iwama, Y. Ohya, T. Obi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Natural color reproduction in the television system for telemedicine,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Display, Y. Kim, ed., Proc. SPIE3031, 482–489 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Karhunen, A. Hyvarinen, R. Vigário, J. Hurri, E. Oja, “Applications of neural blind separation to signal and image processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 131–134.

T. Inoue, Y. Fujii, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Block blind separation of independent spectra in hyperspectral-images,” in 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing: Technical Digest (Japan Society for Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 40–41.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mixture and separation of independent signals: (a) flow of the signals, examples of probability density distribution of (b) xl,m(1) and xl,m(2), (c) el,m(1) and el,m(2), and (d) sl,m(1) and sl,m(2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic model of human skin with plane-parallel epidermal and dermal layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analyzed color images: (a) skin color image with 64×64 pixels, (b) facial image color image with 1920×1035 pixels. The skin color image is extracted from the forehead of the facial image. The extracted area is enclosed by a white square.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Skin color model in the optical density domain of three channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the number of principal components used and the cumulative contribution ratio in skin colors of three channels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flow chart of preprocessing and ICA for a skin color image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of (a) observed signals el,m(1) and el,m(2) and (b) separated signals sl,m(1) and sl,m(2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two separated independent components of the skin color image: (a) first and (b) second independent components. The synthesis parameters are set as (a) K=diag[1, 0] and j=0, (b) K=diag[0, 1] and j=0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two separated images corresponding to (a) first and (b) second independent components. Synthesis parameters are set as (a) K=diag[1, 0] and j=0, (b) K=diag[0, 1] and j=0.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated images of facial color variation based on the independent component. The synthesis parameters are set as (a) K=diag[2, 1] and j=1, (b) K=diag[3, 1] and j=1, (c) K=diag[1, 2] and j=1, (d) K=diag[1, 3] and j=1.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

el,m=xl,m(1)a(1)+xl,m(2)a(2).
el,m=Axl,m.
sl,m=Hel,m,H=[h(1), h(2)],
sl,m=[sl,m(1), sl,m(2)]t,
sl,m=RΛxl,m,
HAxl,m=RΛxl,m.
A=H-1RΛ.
cl,m=[-log(rl,m), -log(gl,m), -log(bl,m)]t,
cl,m=ql,m(1)c(1)+ql,m(2)c(2)+c(3),
cl,m=Cql,m+c(3).
cl,m=P Ptcl,m+(I-P Pt)cl,m,
cl,m=P Pt{Cql,m+c(3)}+(I-P Pt)c(3).
wl,m=Pt{Cql,m+c(3)} .
wl,m=PtCql,m,
ql,m=ql,m+(PtC)-1Ptc(3).
el,m=D-1/2(PtCql,m-w¯).
el,m=D-1/2PtCxl,m,
xl,m=ql,m-(PtC)-1w¯.
el,m=Axl,m.
C˜=(D-1/2Pt)-1H-1RΛ.
q˜l,m=C˜+cl,m-b,
b=minl,m (C˜+cl,m),
cl,m=C˜{K(C˜+cl,m-b)+jb}+j (I-PPt)cl,m,

Metrics