Abstract

We measured the directionality of the cones with both a psychophysical (Stiles–Crawford I) technique and an optical technique. The two sets of measurements were made in the same subjects, with stimuli as similar as possible used. The two types of measurements gave similar estimates of the location in the pupil toward which the cones were optimally aligned. However, the two measurements gave quite dissimilar estimates of the width of the directional sensitivity. On average, optical measurements were half as broad as psychophysical measurements in the fovea, but there were substantial individual differences. At 2-deg retinal eccentricity the difference between techniques was even more marked.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. V. Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  16. S. A. Burns, Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford St., Boston, Mass., S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner “Reflectometric measurement of human cone photoreceptor directionality,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 102–105.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. L. Walraven, M. A. Bouman, “Relation between directional sensitivity and spectral response curves in human cone vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 786–784 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Wijngaard, M. A. Bouman, F. Budding, “The Stiles–Crawford colour change,” Vision Res. 14, 951–957 (1974).
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  26. 4.3 log td was used to improve accuracy; while this bleaches only ∼50% of the visual pigments, pilot experiment at 5.8 log td showed no significant difference in the measured rho value. However, the accuracy of the data was worse at this higher illuminance.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area-effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. L. Walraven, “Recovery of the increase of the Stiles–Crawford effect after bleaching,” Nature (London) 210, 311–312 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  38. G. J. V. Blokland, D. V. Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A model for assessment of cone directionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473–491 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. V. Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 15, 2229–2247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. J. V. Blokland, “The optics of the human eye with respect to polarized light,” doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1986.
  42. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, J. C. He, “Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012–2022 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  43. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. S. Marcos, R. Navarro, P. Artal, “Coherent imaging of the cone mosaic in the living human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 897–905 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A model for assessment of cone directionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473–491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. V. Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 15, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, R. Navarro, P. Artal, “Coherent imaging of the cone mosaic in the living human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 897–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

1986 (2)

G. J. V. Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. V. Blokland, D. V. Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1981 (1)

R. A. Weale, “On the problem of retinal directional sensitivity,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B Biol. Sci. 212, 113–130 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

M. Alpern, “Lack of uniformity in colour matching,” J. Physiol. (London) 288, 85–105 (1979).

S. J. Starr, F. W. Fitzke, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in the central fovea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 20, 172 (1979).

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

J. J. Vos, F. L. van Os, “The effect of lens density on the Stiles–Crawford effect,” Vision Res. 15, 749–751 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

W. Wijngaard, M. A. Bouman, F. Budding, “The Stiles–Crawford colour change,” Vision Res. 14, 951–957 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Directionally selective light adaptation a visual consequence of receptor disarray?” Vision Res. 14, 369–378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 497–503 (1973).

1971 (1)

A. M. Laties, J. M. Enoch, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 10, 69–77 (1971).

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. M. Campbell, “Photoreceptor orientation in the primate eye,” Nature (London) 218, 172–173 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles–Crawford effect on retinal location,” J. Physiol. (London) 192, 309–315 (1967).

1966 (1)

P. L. Walraven, “Recovery of the increase of the Stiles–Crawford effect after bleaching,” Nature (London) 210, 311–312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. Krauskopf, “Some experiments with a photoelectric ophthalmoscope,” Excerpta Med. Int. Congr. Ser. 125, 171–181 (1965).

1961 (2)

J. M. Enoch, “Visualization of waveguide models in retinal receptors,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107–1118 (1961).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

P. L. Walraven, M. A. Bouman, “Relation between directional sensitivity and spectral response curves in human cone vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 786–784 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

1947 (1)

1937 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which it strikes the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Lack of uniformity in colour matching,” J. Physiol. (London) 288, 85–105 (1979).

Applegate, R. A.

Artal, P.

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. V. Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 15, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blokland, G. J. V.

G. J. V. Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. V. Blokland, D. V. Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. V. Blokland, “The optics of the human eye with respect to polarized light,” doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1986.

Bouman, M. A.

W. Wijngaard, M. A. Bouman, F. Budding, “The Stiles–Crawford colour change,” Vision Res. 14, 951–957 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, M. A. Bouman, “Relation between directional sensitivity and spectral response curves in human cone vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 786–784 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Budding, F.

W. Wijngaard, M. A. Bouman, F. Budding, “The Stiles–Crawford colour change,” Vision Res. 14, 951–957 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S.

Burns, S. A.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, J. C. He, “Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012–2022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area-effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J.-M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, F. C. Delori, “Comparison of reflectometric and psychophysical measures of cone orientation,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. I of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), 160–163.

S. A. Burns, Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford St., Boston, Mass., S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner “Reflectometric measurement of human cone photoreceptor directionality,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 102–105.

Campbell, C. E. M.

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. M. Campbell, “Photoreceptor orientation in the primate eye,” Nature (London) 218, 172–173 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLint, P. J.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A model for assessment of cone directionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473–491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford St., Boston, Mass., S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner “Reflectometric measurement of human cone photoreceptor directionality,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 102–105.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J.-M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, F. C. Delori, “Comparison of reflectometric and psychophysical measures of cone orientation,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. I of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), 160–163.

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. He, A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033–2040 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221–230 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, “Color matching at high illuminances: the color-match-area-effect and photopigment bleaching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 698–704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J.-M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, F. C. Delori, “Comparison of reflectometric and psychophysical measures of cone orientation,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. I of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), 160–163.

S. A. Burns, Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford St., Boston, Mass., S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner “Reflectometric measurement of human cone photoreceptor directionality,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 102–105.

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 497–503 (1973).

A. M. Laties, J. M. Enoch, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 10, 69–77 (1971).

J. M. Enoch, W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Opt. Acta 8, 329–358 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Enoch, “Visualization of waveguide models in retinal receptors,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107–1118 (1961).
[PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. J. Starr, F. W. Fitzke, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in the central fovea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 20, 172 (1979).

Gorrand, J.-M.

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A model for assessment of cone directionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473–491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Gorrand, “Directional effects of the retina appearing in the aerial image,” J. Opt. 16, 279–287 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J.-M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, F. C. Delori, “Comparison of reflectometric and psychophysical measures of cone orientation,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. I of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), 160–163.

He, J.

He, J. C.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hope, G. M.

J. M. Enoch, G. M. Hope, “Directional sensitivity of the foveal and parafoveal retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 497–503 (1973).

Hyams, L.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, “Some experiments with a photoelectric ophthalmoscope,” Excerpta Med. Int. Congr. Ser. 125, 171–181 (1965).

Kreitz, M. R.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J.-M. Gorrand, M. R. Kreitz, F. C. Delori, “Comparison of reflectometric and psychophysical measures of cone orientation,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. I of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), 160–163.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

Laties, A. M.

A. M. Laties, J. M. Enoch, “An analysis of retinal receptor orientation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 10, 69–77 (1971).

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. M. Campbell, “Photoreceptor orientation in the primate eye,” Nature (London) 218, 172–173 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Liebman, P. A.

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. M. Campbell, “Photoreceptor orientation in the primate eye,” Nature (London) 218, 172–173 (1968).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Directionally selective light adaptation a visual consequence of receptor disarray?” Vision Res. 14, 369–378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makous, W.

B. Chen, W. Makous, “Light capture by human cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 414, 89–109 (1989).

Marcos, S.

Massof, R. W.

S. J. Starr, F. W. Fitzke, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in the central fovea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 20, 172 (1979).

Navarro, R.

Nelson, J. H.

W. D. Wright, J. H. Nelson, “The relation between the apparent intensity of a beam of light and the angle at which it strikes the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London 48, 401–405 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Norren, D. V.

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. V. Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 15, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. V. Blokland, D. V. Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, B.

Pokorny, J.

Safir, A.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Starr, S. J.

S. J. Starr, F. W. Fitzke, R. W. Massof, “The Stiles–Crawford effect in the central fovea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 20, 172 (1979).

S. J. Starr, “Effect of luminance and wavelength on the Stiles–Crawford effect in dichromats,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1977).

Stiles, W. S.

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4.3 log td was used to improve accuracy; while this bleaches only ∼50% of the visual pigments, pilot experiment at 5.8 log td showed no significant difference in the measured rho value. However, the accuracy of the data was worse at this higher illuminance.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical apparatus used in this study. This was a four-channel, Maxwellian-view, optical stimulator–imaging system, and a slightly different version has been described in detail elsewhere.10 For this study there were four main optical channels. The measurement channel provides the stimulus for the optical measurements. The detection channel, which contained a cooled CCD (Princeton Instruments) is used to record the distribution of light emerging from the plane of the pupil. The bleaching channel produces a large field stimulus that acts to bleach the retina in the optical measurements and provides a bleaching background field for the psychophysical measurements. The psychophysics channel provides a stimulus that can be positioned both in the pupil and in the retina and was used to generate both fixation and test stimuli (see text). BS, beam splitter; rgBS, red–green dichroic beam splitter; S, shutter; MP and MR, devices for moving pupil and retinal locations, respectively; SD, spinning diffuser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical measurements of cone directionality for six subjects. Each image is the intensity distribution measured at the pupil plane of light returning from the retina when a 1-deg retinal area is illuminated near the peak of the directionality reflectivity function. The scale bar indicates 2 mm. Initials correspond to images for each of the subjects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plots of the logarithm of the relative luminous efficiency as a function of pupil location for the same six subjects as in Fig. 2. Contours are plotted at 0.2 log-unit intervals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the estimates of the location in the pupil of peak cone sensitivity measured psychophysically (squares) and optically (circles). The lines connect the estimates using the different techniques for each subject. Dashed lines and the numeral 2 indicate the comparisons for SM, JH, and SB at 2 deg in the temporal retina.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of cone directionality (rho parameter) measured by both optical (squares) and psychophysical (circles) techniques for the same six subjects. Error bars, ±1 standard error of the mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of the optical and psychophysical estimates of rho for each subject at the fovea. Circles, the mean of the ratio for each individual; error bar, ±1 standard error of the mean; dotted line, the average across subjects.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change in cone directionality with retinal location for three subjects. The optical measurements (dashed lines) and psychophysical measurements (solid lines) change differently with changes in retinal position.

Equations (2)

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Spupil=S0×10{-ρ*[(x-x0)2+(y-y0)2]},
Lpupil=B+A×10{-ρ*[(x-x0)2+(y-y0)2]},

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