Abstract

Using an uncoated fiber tip as a light source and a multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett film of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine as a sample, we obtain near-field images at the fundamental-harmonic (FH) and second-harmonic (SH) wavelengths for different polarizations and wavelengths of the pump light. The spatial resolution of 100 nm is achieved in near-field SH images that are not correlated with either the topographical or the FH images. It is directly demonstrated that SH generation is most concentrated inside submicrometer-sized (300–500 nm) crystallike domains, which are oriented differently but predominantly in the dipping direction and whose SH efficiency is maximum for pump wavelengths in the range of 770–800 nm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213–221 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Provencher, M.-M. D. Roberge, A. Suau, K. Tian, G. Munger, R. Leblanc, “Second-harmonic generation investigation of Langmuir–Blodgett 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1406–1410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
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  11. M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip-surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (6)

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, “Near-field optics with uncoated fiber tips: light confinement and spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1656–1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Provencher, M.-M. D. Roberge, A. Suau, K. Tian, G. Munger, R. Leblanc, “Second-harmonic generation investigation of Langmuir–Blodgett 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1406–1410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borer, T.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brillert, C.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaub, H. E.

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, T.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hallen, H. D.

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalocha, A.

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karna, S. P.

Kauranen, M.

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

Kirilyuk, A.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, V.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, F.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Küpfer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

La Rosa, A. H.

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, R.

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Moers, M. H. P.

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munger, G.

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Paesler, M. A.

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213–221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Provencher, P.

Ramanujam, P. S.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberge, M.-M. D.

Rompaey, Y. V.

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkilde, S.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruiter, A. G. T.

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salmen, H.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steitz, R.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suau, A.

Talapatra, G. B.

Tang, Q.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tian, K.

Uesu, Y.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

Wierschem, M.

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213–221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Xiao, M.

Yakobson, B. I.

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zahir, S.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Flörsheimer, H. Salmen, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Molecular surface orientation field of a Langmuir monolayer determined by second-harmonic microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1056–1060 (1997);M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic microscopy—a quantitative probe for molecular surface order,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1061–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, Y. Yamamoto, “Optical second harmonic images of 90° domain structure in BaTiO3 and periodically inverted antiparallel domains in LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165–2167 (1995);S. Kurimura, Y. Uesu, “Application of the second harmonic generation microscope to nondestructive observation of periodically poled ferroelectric domains in quasi-phase-matched wavelength converters,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 369–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, “A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Verbiest, Y. V. Rompaey, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, “Anisotropic floating monolayers of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine studied by second-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 285–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

JETP Lett. (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–211 (1983).

Langmuir (1)

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, N. F. van Hulst, “Poly(diacetylene) monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope,” Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994);R. Brunner, A. Bietsch, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, A. Lambacher, “Application of a near-field optical microscope to investigate the fluorescence energy transfer between chromophores embedded in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 25, 492–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second harmonic generation from a rough metal surface,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290–9293 (1997);I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, C. C. Davis, “Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127–133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayer for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 178, 445–451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198–201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

B. I. Yakobson, A. H. La Rosa, H. D. Hallen, M. A. Paesler, “Thermal/optical effects in NSOM probes,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 179–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Jalocha, M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, N. F. van Hulst, “Multi-detection and polarisation contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 221–226 (1995);A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.

P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for near-field imaging of optical linear and nonlinear contrast simultaneously with surface topography. BS, beamsplitters; M, mirror; L, microobjectives; S, sample; PT, piezotranslator; DL, diode laser; PD, photodiodes; F, filter; and PMT, photomultiplier tube. Typical gray-scale topographical (depth 55 nm), near-field optical fundamental (FH wavelength λω=772 nm, image contrast 15%) and SH (SH wavelength λ2ω=386 nm; signal variations from 30 to 550 counts s-1) images of 2.5×1 µm2 taken with the DCANP film are also shown for the polarization of the pump wave in the dipping (horizontal) direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray-scale topographical (depth 41 nm), near-field optical fundamental (image contrast 13%) and SH (signal variations are from 15 to 150 counts s-1) images of 1.2µm×1.5 µm, and the corresponding cross sections taken across the bright spot on the SH image (stars for topography, open and filled circles for SH and FH signals, respectively). The wavelength and polarization used are as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gray-scale topographical (depth 70 nm), near-field optical fundamental (image contrast 15% for all images) and SH images of 2.5 µm×3 µm for different angles α between the polarization of light coupled in the fiber and the dipping direction. SH-signal variations normalized on the square of the detected FH signal are (α=-45°) from 5 to 130 counts s-1, (α=0°) from 7 to 320 counts s-1, (α=45°) from 15 to 240 counts s-1, and (α=90°) from 11 to 89 counts s-1. The wavelength used is as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Topographical (depth 60 nm), near-field fundamental (image contrast 14% for all images) and SH images (2.5 µm×3 µm) of the DCANP film for different angles α between the polarization of light and the dipping direction. SH-signal variations normalized on the square of the detected FH signal are (α=-45°) from 3 to 120 counts s-1, (α=0°) from 7 to 150 counts s-1, (α=45°) from 6 to 64 counts s-1, and (α=90°) from 3 to 50 counts s-1. The wavelength used is as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gray-scale topographical (depth 52 nm) and near-field SH (λ2ω=400 nm, signal variations are from 130 to 505 counts s-1) images of 1.9 µm×2.3 µm, as well as the wavelength dependence of the SH signals for the domains marked on the SH image and that of the average SH signal (stars). The polarization of the pump wave is in the dipping direction.

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