Abstract

Polarization-difference imaging (PDI) has been shown to yield an improvement in the qualitative and quantitative detectability of objects in scattering media. In this investigation, PDI and conventional, polarization-blind imaging are combined to yield a novel representational scheme generally suitable for detection of targets having a low degree of linear polarization and specifically suitable for detection and discrimination of weakly polarizing targets in scattering media. This representational scheme meets several general criteria for optimization of the presentation of low-signal image information to human observers and takes specific advantage of the properties of the opponent-color coding used by the human visual system.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Principles and techniques of polarimetric mapping,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), Vol. 1, pp. 523–540.
  2. R. Walraven, “Polarization imagery,” in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam, D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE112, 164–167 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. G. Egan, W. R. Johnson, V. S. Whitehead, “Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the Space Shuttle: characterization and interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 435–442 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. B. Wolff, T. E. Boult, “Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 635–657 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. B. Wolff, T. A. Mancini, “Liquid crystal polarization camera,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, New York, 1992), pp. 120–127.
  7. M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, J. S. Tyo, N. Engheta, “Polarization-difference imaging: a biologically inspired technique for imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 20, 608–610 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media using polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1855–1870 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. D. Bernard, R. Wehner, “Functional similarities between polarization vision and color vision,” Vision Res. 17, 1019–1028 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. E. Solomon, “Polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1537–1544 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. F. J. Garlick, C. A. Steigman, W. E. Lamb, “Differential optical polarization detectors,” U.S. patent3,992,571 (November16, 1976).
  12. L. B. Wolff, “Polarization camera for computer vision with a beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2935–2945 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Color appearance and colour constancy,” in The Perception of Colour, Vol. 6 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 43–61.
  14. J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A PS image, as defined in relation (2), is formed by adding the intensities captured through two orthogonal polarizers. As shown previously,7,8 PS images are insensitive to the choice of orthogonal axes and are thus polarization blind.
  16. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Perceived color, induction effects, and opponent-response mechanisms,” J. Gen. Physiol. 43 (No. 6) (Suppl.) 63–80 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. S. Tyo, “Polarization difference imaging: a means for seeing through scattering media”, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1997), Chaps. 7 and 8.
  18. The actual mapping of analyzer angle into hue is dependent upon the choice of color space. In our mapping we use the (R,G,B) space of matlab, where pure red corresponds to H=0, S=1, and B=1.
  19. E. R. Méndez, A. G. Navarrette, R. E. Luna, “Statistics of the polarization properties of one-dimensional randomly rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2507–2516 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. The narrow-band filter is needed to eliminate wavelengths of light outside the operating wave band of the twisted nematic liquid-crystal cell8. Because of the filter, the received signal was low. To compensate for this, 128 images were added into a 16-bit accumulator, and the resulting sum was divided by a number less than 128 to use as much of the dynamic range as possible. The divisor ranged from as small as 8 in some back-illuminated images (providingan amplification factor of 16) to as large as 32 for some front-illuminated images.
  21. An attenuation length is equivalent to the mean free path of photons in the scattering medium.
  22. J. S. Tyo, “Optimum linear combination strategy for an N-channel polarization-sensitive imaging or vision system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 359–366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Buchsbaum, A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmis- sion in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  25. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).
  26. T. H. Waterman, “Polarization sensitivity,” in Comparative Physiology and Evolution of Vision in Invertebrates B: Invertebrate Visual Centers and Behavior, H. Atrum, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. VII/6B.
  27. S. Q. Duntley, “Light in the sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214–233 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).

1991 (2)

L. B. Wolff, T. E. Boult, “Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 635–657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Egan, W. R. Johnson, V. S. Whitehead, “Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the Space Shuttle: characterization and interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 435–442 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

1985 (2)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

G. Buchsbaum, A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmis- sion in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

G. D. Bernard, R. Wehner, “Functional similarities between polarization vision and color vision,” Vision Res. 17, 1019–1028 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

1960 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Perceived color, induction effects, and opponent-response mechanisms,” J. Gen. Physiol. 43 (No. 6) (Suppl.) 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernard, G. D.

G. D. Bernard, R. Wehner, “Functional similarities between polarization vision and color vision,” Vision Res. 17, 1019–1028 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boult, T. E.

L. B. Wolff, T. E. Boult, “Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 635–657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).

Buchsbaum, G.

G. Buchsbaum, A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmis- sion in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chichilnisky, E.-J.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).

D’Zmura, M.

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

Duntley, S. Q.

Egan, W. G.

Engheta, N.

Garlick, G. F. J.

G. F. J. Garlick, C. A. Steigman, W. E. Lamb, “Differential optical polarization detectors,” U.S. patent3,992,571 (November16, 1976).

Gottschalk, A.

G. Buchsbaum, A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmis- sion in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Halaijan, J.

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Principles and techniques of polarimetric mapping,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), Vol. 1, pp. 523–540.

Hallock, H.

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Principles and techniques of polarimetric mapping,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), Vol. 1, pp. 523–540.

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Perceived color, induction effects, and opponent-response mechanisms,” J. Gen. Physiol. 43 (No. 6) (Suppl.) 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Perceived color, induction effects, and opponent-response mechanisms,” J. Gen. Physiol. 43 (No. 6) (Suppl.) 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, W. R.

Katz, J. E.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, W. E.

G. F. J. Garlick, C. A. Steigman, W. E. Lamb, “Differential optical polarization detectors,” U.S. patent3,992,571 (November16, 1976).

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

Luna, R. E.

Maestre, M. F.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, T. A.

L. B. Wolff, T. A. Mancini, “Liquid crystal polarization camera,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, New York, 1992), pp. 120–127.

Méndez, E. R.

Mickols, W.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

Navarrette, A. G.

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Color appearance and colour constancy,” in The Perception of Colour, Vol. 6 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 43–61.

Pugh, E. N.

Rowe, M. P.

Shevell, S. K.

J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Color appearance and colour constancy,” in The Perception of Colour, Vol. 6 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 43–61.

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Color appearance and colour constancy,” in The Perception of Colour, Vol. 6 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 43–61.

Solomon, J. E.

Steigman, C. A.

G. F. J. Garlick, C. A. Steigman, W. E. Lamb, “Differential optical polarization detectors,” U.S. patent3,992,571 (November16, 1976).

Tinoco, I.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Walraven, R.

R. Walraven, “Polarization imagery,” in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam, D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE112, 164–167 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wandell, B. A.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).

Waterman, T. H.

T. H. Waterman, “Polarization sensitivity,” in Comparative Physiology and Evolution of Vision in Invertebrates B: Invertebrate Visual Centers and Behavior, H. Atrum, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. VII/6B.

Wehner, R.

G. D. Bernard, R. Wehner, “Functional similarities between polarization vision and color vision,” Vision Res. 17, 1019–1028 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, V. S.

Wolff, L. B.

L. B. Wolff, “Polarization camera for computer vision with a beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2935–2945 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Wolff, T. E. Boult, “Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 635–657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Wolff, T. A. Mancini, “Liquid crystal polarization camera,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, New York, 1992), pp. 120–127.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. (1)

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. (1)

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E.-J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2 (October), 164–170 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

L. B. Wolff, T. E. Boult, “Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 635–657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “Perceived color, induction effects, and opponent-response mechanisms,” J. Gen. Physiol. 43 (No. 6) (Suppl.) 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

G. Buchsbaum, A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmis- sion in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228–2236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

G. D. Bernard, R. Wehner, “Functional similarities between polarization vision and color vision,” Vision Res. 17, 1019–1028 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

G. F. J. Garlick, C. A. Steigman, W. E. Lamb, “Differential optical polarization detectors,” U.S. patent3,992,571 (November16, 1976).

A PS image, as defined in relation (2), is formed by adding the intensities captured through two orthogonal polarizers. As shown previously,7,8 PS images are insensitive to the choice of orthogonal axes and are thus polarization blind.

T. H. Waterman, “Polarization sensitivity,” in Comparative Physiology and Evolution of Vision in Invertebrates B: Invertebrate Visual Centers and Behavior, H. Atrum, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. VII/6B.

J. S. Tyo, “Polarization difference imaging: a means for seeing through scattering media”, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1997), Chaps. 7 and 8.

The actual mapping of analyzer angle into hue is dependent upon the choice of color space. In our mapping we use the (R,G,B) space of matlab, where pure red corresponds to H=0, S=1, and B=1.

J. Pokorny, S. K. Shevell, V. C. Smith, “Color appearance and colour constancy,” in The Perception of Colour, Vol. 6 of Vision and Visual Dysfunction, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991), pp. 43–61.

The narrow-band filter is needed to eliminate wavelengths of light outside the operating wave band of the twisted nematic liquid-crystal cell8. Because of the filter, the received signal was low. To compensate for this, 128 images were added into a 16-bit accumulator, and the resulting sum was divided by a number less than 128 to use as much of the dynamic range as possible. The divisor ranged from as small as 8 in some back-illuminated images (providingan amplification factor of 16) to as large as 32 for some front-illuminated images.

An attenuation length is equivalent to the mean free path of photons in the scattering medium.

L. B. Wolff, T. A. Mancini, “Liquid crystal polarization camera,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, New York, 1992), pp. 120–127.

J. Halaijan, H. Hallock, “Principles and techniques of polarimetric mapping,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), Vol. 1, pp. 523–540.

R. Walraven, “Polarization imagery,” in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam, D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE112, 164–167 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Front-illuminated PS and PD images obtained at 1.4 attenuation lengths. The circular disk face is readily apparent in the PS image (A), but the scratched patches are only slightly visible and indistinguishable from each other. The scratched patches are distinct in the PD image (B), but the circular disk face is not clearly visible. The goal of colorimetric PDI is to incorporate the positive features of both A and B into a single image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2C-PDI images of the back-illuminated dielectric sphere at an effective distance of 0.13 attenuation lengths. Images A, B, and C were obtained with the analyzer oriented at angles of 0°, 36°, and 72° with respect to the vertical, respectively. 2C-PDI highlights areas that are polarized parallel to the PDI axes and has blind spots where the light is polarized at 45° with respect to the PDI axes. The key at the right reveals how the colors in the images map into polarization direction; for example, red represents an excess of horizontal polarization and cyan represents an excess of vertical polarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2C-PDI images of the back-illuminated dielectric sphere at an effective distance of 2.5 attenuation lengths. These images, although somewhat degraded, have the same qualitative form as that of the corresponding images in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Colorimetric PDI of the aluminum disk under (A) front-, (B) side-, and (C) and (D) back-illuminated conditions. Image C is obtained by using 2C-PDI, and image D is obtained by using 1C-PDI. Images A, B, and D demonstrate that, with the use of 1C- and 2C-PDI in conjunction, colorimetric PDI is extremely robust over varying illumination direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Problems with mapping the state of polarization. Image A presents the dielectric sphere back-illuminated at an effective distance of 0.13 attenuation length with use of the mapping of Bernard and Wehner.9 This image clearly indicates the direction of polarization around the edge of the image of the sphere. Image B presents an image of the same sphere as in image A but obtained at 2.5 attenuation lengths. The scatterers have introduced an uncertainty into the measured angle of polarization, resulting in a variation in hue in the image. Image C presents a side-illuminated view of the metallic target obtained at 4.1 attenuation lengths. The partially vertically polarized background dominates the image, so that the patches are separated by 36° of hue rather than 180° of hue, as was the case in Fig. 4B. The polarization parameters have been amplified in the creation of these images by using an affine transformation, as was done for colorimetric PDI in Figs. 24.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IB,
dS,
2θH.
PSII+IB,
PDII-IS,
2ϕ0(H, H+180°),

Metrics