Abstract

No abstract available.

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. P. 631; 1921. Physikal. Zeit. 22, p. 673; 1921.
  2. Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, P. 210; 1922.
  3. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  4. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 7, p. 213; 1923.
    [Crossref]
  5. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  6. Loc. cit.
  7. Phys. Rev. 27, p. 282; 1908.
  8. This particular assumption is made because the area on the photographic film chosen for microscopic measurement always corresponded to this condition.
  9. Wave-lengths are taken from Dingle, Proc. Roy. Soc. 100A, p. 167; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  10. Loc. cit.
  11. Loc. cit.
  12. An alternative method which is widely used and which gives the statistical grain size—frequency distribution, is to coat a glass slide with a very thin layer of emulsion and then after exposure, to remove the developed grains by chemical reduction, and examine the undeveloped grains microscopically.
  13. Slade and Higson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 98A, p. 154; 1920.
    [Crossref]
  14. Drude, loc. cit. p. 98.
  15. By ordinary methods it would take 900 additions to obtain the number of grains in the 36 partitions, but the following artifice reduces the number of operations to 224:1.Set down the number of grains in each of the 100 squares in a square array, and let the term in the rth row and the sth column be designated byr,s,         r=0,1,…,9;s=0,1,…,9.2.Form the array whose general term is[r,s]by the rule:[r,0]=∑p=0p=4p,r.  r=0,1,…,9.[r,s]=[r,s-1]-s-1,r+s+4,r.s=1,2,…,5.A check can be made as follows:[r,6]=∑s=5s=9s,r.3.The number of grains in each of the 36 different partitions is given by:(0,s)=∑p=0p=5[p,s]  r=1,2,…,5.(r,s)=(r-1,s)-[r-1,s]+[r+4,s].s=0,1,…,5.The check is:(6,r)=∑p=5p=9[p,r].
  16. No attempt was made to determine the frequency of occurrence of the various sizes of silver bromide grains present in the emulsion of the unexposed film. Nowever the mean grain-size (assuming that this value has some slight significance) as measured by the diffraction haloes produced by a small aperture was of the order of 0.8μ.
  17. Cf. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. 44, p. 257; 1922. Svedberg, Nature,  109, p. 221; 1922. Noddack, Streuber, and Scheffers, loc. cit.
    [Crossref]
  18. Zeit. wiss. Phot. 13, p. 402; 1914.
  19. Journ. Physique et Radium.  2, p. 156; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  20. Journ. Physique et Radium.  3, p. 181; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  21. Cf. also Luckiesh, Ultra Violet Radiation, p. 199. Van Nostrand. 1922. Lyman, Nature.  112, p. 202; 1923.
    [Crossref]
  22. Cf. Drude, Lehrbuch d. Optik, p. 319; 1900.
  23. Gifford. Proc. Roy. Soc. 70A, p. 329; 1902. Cf. also a similar assumption made by Coblentz. Bull. Bur. Standards.  11, p. 471; 1915.
    [Crossref]
  24. Loc. cit.
  25. Winkelmann. Nandb. d. Physik. 6, p. 1252; 1906.
  26. If the absorption of quartz be considered, (at 2140A, 9 mm of quartz absorbs 8 per cent,— Pflüger, Physikal. Zeit. 5, p. 215; 1904) the value of the reflecting power at 2140A should be decreased by 1.7 per cent. Furthermore, it is interesting to notice that the assumption of normal incidence instead of an angle of incidence of 18° would not have appreciably changed the calculated values of the reflecting power, for the resulting values with normal incidence are 12.17 per cent, and 9.58 per cent. Since the gelatine which envelops the silver bromide grains must exert a powerful influence upon the phenomena of reflection, the fact that the index of refraction of photographic gelatine for the D line differs from the index of the ordinary ray of quartz by less than 1 per cent (index of gelatine 1.530, index for the ordinary ray through quartz 1.544,—Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920) seems to indicate that the value of the reflection coefficient of silver bromide for normal incidence would probably not differ greatly from its value for an angle of incidence of 18°.
  27. This method of measuring the absorption of turbid media by placing the material to be measured against a diffusing screen is recommended by Callier, Ferguson (Phot. Journ. 52, p. 283; 1912), Bloch and Renwick (Phot. Journ. 56, p. 49; 1916), et. al.
  28. At 4063A about 92 per cent of the incident radiation would be absorbed. Weigert (Zeit. Phys. Chem. 99, p. 499, 1921) finds that at this wave-length the absorption of a photographic emulsion may amount to more than 84 per cent.
  29. Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920.
  30. Sitz. Wiss. Wien. 102, IIA, p. 459; 1893.
  31. Assuming that gelatine has a density of 1.27 gm/cm3 (Smithsonian Tables, p. 113).

1923 (1)

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 7, p. 213; 1923.
[Crossref]

1922 (5)

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
[Crossref]

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, P. 210; 1922.

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
[Crossref]

Cf. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. 44, p. 257; 1922. Svedberg, Nature,  109, p. 221; 1922. Noddack, Streuber, and Scheffers, loc. cit.
[Crossref]

Journ. Physique et Radium.  3, p. 181; 1922.
[Crossref]

1921 (4)

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. P. 631; 1921. Physikal. Zeit. 22, p. 673; 1921.

Journ. Physique et Radium.  2, p. 156; 1921.
[Crossref]

Wave-lengths are taken from Dingle, Proc. Roy. Soc. 100A, p. 167; 1921.
[Crossref]

At 4063A about 92 per cent of the incident radiation would be absorbed. Weigert (Zeit. Phys. Chem. 99, p. 499, 1921) finds that at this wave-length the absorption of a photographic emulsion may amount to more than 84 per cent.

1920 (2)

Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920.

Slade and Higson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 98A, p. 154; 1920.
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

Zeit. wiss. Phot. 13, p. 402; 1914.

1912 (1)

This method of measuring the absorption of turbid media by placing the material to be measured against a diffusing screen is recommended by Callier, Ferguson (Phot. Journ. 52, p. 283; 1912), Bloch and Renwick (Phot. Journ. 56, p. 49; 1916), et. al.

1908 (1)

Phys. Rev. 27, p. 282; 1908.

1906 (1)

Winkelmann. Nandb. d. Physik. 6, p. 1252; 1906.

1904 (1)

If the absorption of quartz be considered, (at 2140A, 9 mm of quartz absorbs 8 per cent,— Pflüger, Physikal. Zeit. 5, p. 215; 1904) the value of the reflecting power at 2140A should be decreased by 1.7 per cent. Furthermore, it is interesting to notice that the assumption of normal incidence instead of an angle of incidence of 18° would not have appreciably changed the calculated values of the reflecting power, for the resulting values with normal incidence are 12.17 per cent, and 9.58 per cent. Since the gelatine which envelops the silver bromide grains must exert a powerful influence upon the phenomena of reflection, the fact that the index of refraction of photographic gelatine for the D line differs from the index of the ordinary ray of quartz by less than 1 per cent (index of gelatine 1.530, index for the ordinary ray through quartz 1.544,—Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920) seems to indicate that the value of the reflection coefficient of silver bromide for normal incidence would probably not differ greatly from its value for an angle of incidence of 18°.

1902 (1)

Gifford. Proc. Roy. Soc. 70A, p. 329; 1902. Cf. also a similar assumption made by Coblentz. Bull. Bur. Standards.  11, p. 471; 1915.
[Crossref]

1900 (1)

Cf. Drude, Lehrbuch d. Optik, p. 319; 1900.

1893 (1)

Sitz. Wiss. Wien. 102, IIA, p. 459; 1893.

Dingle,

Wave-lengths are taken from Dingle, Proc. Roy. Soc. 100A, p. 167; 1921.
[Crossref]

Drude,

Cf. Drude, Lehrbuch d. Optik, p. 319; 1900.

Drude, loc. cit. p. 98.

Ferguson,

This method of measuring the absorption of turbid media by placing the material to be measured against a diffusing screen is recommended by Callier, Ferguson (Phot. Journ. 52, p. 283; 1912), Bloch and Renwick (Phot. Journ. 56, p. 49; 1916), et. al.

Gifford,

Gifford. Proc. Roy. Soc. 70A, p. 329; 1902. Cf. also a similar assumption made by Coblentz. Bull. Bur. Standards.  11, p. 471; 1915.
[Crossref]

Higson,

Slade and Higson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 98A, p. 154; 1920.
[Crossref]

Luckiesh,

Cf. also Luckiesh, Ultra Violet Radiation, p. 199. Van Nostrand. 1922. Lyman, Nature.  112, p. 202; 1923.
[Crossref]

Pflüger,

If the absorption of quartz be considered, (at 2140A, 9 mm of quartz absorbs 8 per cent,— Pflüger, Physikal. Zeit. 5, p. 215; 1904) the value of the reflecting power at 2140A should be decreased by 1.7 per cent. Furthermore, it is interesting to notice that the assumption of normal incidence instead of an angle of incidence of 18° would not have appreciably changed the calculated values of the reflecting power, for the resulting values with normal incidence are 12.17 per cent, and 9.58 per cent. Since the gelatine which envelops the silver bromide grains must exert a powerful influence upon the phenomena of reflection, the fact that the index of refraction of photographic gelatine for the D line differs from the index of the ordinary ray of quartz by less than 1 per cent (index of gelatine 1.530, index for the ordinary ray through quartz 1.544,—Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920) seems to indicate that the value of the reflection coefficient of silver bromide for normal incidence would probably not differ greatly from its value for an angle of incidence of 18°.

Silberstein,

Cf. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. 44, p. 257; 1922. Svedberg, Nature,  109, p. 221; 1922. Noddack, Streuber, and Scheffers, loc. cit.
[Crossref]

Slade,

Slade and Higson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 98A, p. 154; 1920.
[Crossref]

Weigert,

At 4063A about 92 per cent of the incident radiation would be absorbed. Weigert (Zeit. Phys. Chem. 99, p. 499, 1921) finds that at this wave-length the absorption of a photographic emulsion may amount to more than 84 per cent.

Winkelmann,

Winkelmann. Nandb. d. Physik. 6, p. 1252; 1906.

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. (3)

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
[Crossref]

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 7, p. 213; 1923.
[Crossref]

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. 6, p. 998; 1922.
[Crossref]

Journ. Physique et Radium (2)

Journ. Physique et Radium.  2, p. 156; 1921.
[Crossref]

Journ. Physique et Radium.  3, p. 181; 1922.
[Crossref]

Lehrbuch d. Optik (1)

Cf. Drude, Lehrbuch d. Optik, p. 319; 1900.

Nandb. d. Physik. (1)

Winkelmann. Nandb. d. Physik. 6, p. 1252; 1906.

Phil. Mag. (1)

Cf. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. 44, p. 257; 1922. Svedberg, Nature,  109, p. 221; 1922. Noddack, Streuber, and Scheffers, loc. cit.
[Crossref]

Phot. Journ. (1)

This method of measuring the absorption of turbid media by placing the material to be measured against a diffusing screen is recommended by Callier, Ferguson (Phot. Journ. 52, p. 283; 1912), Bloch and Renwick (Phot. Journ. 56, p. 49; 1916), et. al.

Phys. Rev. (1)

Phys. Rev. 27, p. 282; 1908.

Physikal. Zeit. (1)

If the absorption of quartz be considered, (at 2140A, 9 mm of quartz absorbs 8 per cent,— Pflüger, Physikal. Zeit. 5, p. 215; 1904) the value of the reflecting power at 2140A should be decreased by 1.7 per cent. Furthermore, it is interesting to notice that the assumption of normal incidence instead of an angle of incidence of 18° would not have appreciably changed the calculated values of the reflecting power, for the resulting values with normal incidence are 12.17 per cent, and 9.58 per cent. Since the gelatine which envelops the silver bromide grains must exert a powerful influence upon the phenomena of reflection, the fact that the index of refraction of photographic gelatine for the D line differs from the index of the ordinary ray of quartz by less than 1 per cent (index of gelatine 1.530, index for the ordinary ray through quartz 1.544,—Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920) seems to indicate that the value of the reflection coefficient of silver bromide for normal incidence would probably not differ greatly from its value for an angle of incidence of 18°.

Proc. Roy. Soc. (3)

Gifford. Proc. Roy. Soc. 70A, p. 329; 1902. Cf. also a similar assumption made by Coblentz. Bull. Bur. Standards.  11, p. 471; 1915.
[Crossref]

Wave-lengths are taken from Dingle, Proc. Roy. Soc. 100A, p. 167; 1921.
[Crossref]

Slade and Higson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 98A, p. 154; 1920.
[Crossref]

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (2)

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. P. 631; 1921. Physikal. Zeit. 22, p. 673; 1921.

Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, P. 210; 1922.

Sitz. Wiss. Wien. (1)

Sitz. Wiss. Wien. 102, IIA, p. 459; 1893.

Smithsonian Physical Tables (1)

Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp. 281, 283; 1920.

Zeit. Phys. Chem. (1)

At 4063A about 92 per cent of the incident radiation would be absorbed. Weigert (Zeit. Phys. Chem. 99, p. 499, 1921) finds that at this wave-length the absorption of a photographic emulsion may amount to more than 84 per cent.

Zeit. wiss. Phot. (1)

Zeit. wiss. Phot. 13, p. 402; 1914.

Other (11)

Cf. also Luckiesh, Ultra Violet Radiation, p. 199. Van Nostrand. 1922. Lyman, Nature.  112, p. 202; 1923.
[Crossref]

Loc. cit.

Assuming that gelatine has a density of 1.27 gm/cm3 (Smithsonian Tables, p. 113).

This particular assumption is made because the area on the photographic film chosen for microscopic measurement always corresponded to this condition.

Loc. cit.

Drude, loc. cit. p. 98.

By ordinary methods it would take 900 additions to obtain the number of grains in the 36 partitions, but the following artifice reduces the number of operations to 224:1.Set down the number of grains in each of the 100 squares in a square array, and let the term in the rth row and the sth column be designated byr,s,         r=0,1,…,9;s=0,1,…,9.2.Form the array whose general term is[r,s]by the rule:[r,0]=∑p=0p=4p,r.  r=0,1,…,9.[r,s]=[r,s-1]-s-1,r+s+4,r.s=1,2,…,5.A check can be made as follows:[r,6]=∑s=5s=9s,r.3.The number of grains in each of the 36 different partitions is given by:(0,s)=∑p=0p=5[p,s]  r=1,2,…,5.(r,s)=(r-1,s)-[r-1,s]+[r+4,s].s=0,1,…,5.The check is:(6,r)=∑p=5p=9[p,r].

No attempt was made to determine the frequency of occurrence of the various sizes of silver bromide grains present in the emulsion of the unexposed film. Nowever the mean grain-size (assuming that this value has some slight significance) as measured by the diffraction haloes produced by a small aperture was of the order of 0.8μ.

Loc. cit.

Loc. cit.

An alternative method which is widely used and which gives the statistical grain size—frequency distribution, is to coat a glass slide with a very thin layer of emulsion and then after exposure, to remove the developed grains by chemical reduction, and examine the undeveloped grains microscopically.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The slit-width error of the monochromator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The sensitizing action of ordinary lubricating oil.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The reflecting power of silver bromide emulsion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The reflecting power of a gelatine-quartz combination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The reflecting power of a transparent quartz plate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The absorption of the silver bromide in an emulsion of ordinary thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The absorption of the gelatine in an ordinary photographic film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The relative absorptions of an emulsion and its gelatine content.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r,s,         r=0,1,,9;s=0,1,,9.
[r,0]=p=0p=4p,r.r=0,1,,9.[r,s]=[r,s-1]-s-1,r+s+4,r.s=1,2,,5.
[r,6]=s=5s=9s,r.
(0,s)=p=0p=5[p,s]r=1,2,,5.(r,s)=(r-1,s)-[r-1,s]+[r+4,s].s=0,1,,5.
(6,r)=p=5p=9[p,r].