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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A Concentration Cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A graphical solution of the equation log 10 H + + log 10 OH = 14

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A Hydrogen Ion Concentration Cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A Hydrogen Ion Concentration Cell With a Calomel Electrode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: A hydrogen-ion concentration cell with a glass electrode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A hydrogen ion concentration cell with an immiscible liquid electrode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simple potentiometer. A—the source of emf supplying current to the circuit ACDR; R—variable resistance; CGH—a shunt circuit containing the hydrogen ion concentration cell; G—a null instrument; H—a sliding contact

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hydrogen ion concentration scale. Description in the text.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Curve A—The titration of 10 cc of N/10 sulphuric acid with N/10 sodium hydroxide.
Curve B—The titration of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and boracic acid with sodium hydroxide.
    Arrow 1 indicates the equivalent point for the hydrochloric acid.
    Arrow 2 indicates the equivalent point for the boracic acid.
The hydrogen ion concentrations are measured on the ordinate axis, the cubic centimeters of alkali added are measured on the abscissa axis.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Curve A—The titration of a solution of ortho phosphoric acid with potassium hydroxide. In this curve we see two precipitous drops, the first one occurring when the primary sodium phosphate is formed, and the second one with the formation of the secondary sodium phosphate.
Curve B—The titration of a saturated solution of boracic acid with sodium hydroxide. The ordinate and abscissa scales are as in Fig. 12.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Curve A—The titration of a strong acid with a weak base: hydrochloric acid with ammonia.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Curve A—The addition of crystals of sodium acetate to 0.1 normal acetic acid. The amounts of sodium acetate are indicated by the negative abscissa readings five centimeters representing an amount of sodium acetate sufficient to make a normal solution of the salt.
Curve B—The titration of a mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate. To the right with N/10 normal hydrochloric acid; to the left with N/10 normal sodium hydroxide. The curve shows the buffer action of a sodium acetate-acetic acid solution. The additions of alkali are represented as negative abscissa readings the additions of acid are represented as positive abscissa readings (1cm = 2cc). The hydrogen ion concentrations are measured on the ordinate axis.
The cross at 1.2 × 10−1 on the ordinate axis marks the total reaction of the acetic acid as determined by the titration with 0.1 normal NaOH. The actual reaction is 1.8 × 10−3.

Equations (4)

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P = 2 · 303 R T ° V F · log 10 C C
[ H + ] × [ OH ] = a constant × [ H 2 O ]
[ H + ] × [ OH ] = K w
log 10 H + + log 10 OH = 14