Abstract

This paper describes an experimental study of the diffraction properties of high-spatial-frequency gratings recorded in relatively thin photoresist layers. Angular selectivity, wavelength selectivity, and peak efficiencies are investigated. Details on grating fabrication are given. The study shows that optical elements with efficiencies greater than 88% can be recorded in media less than one wavelength thick (~0.5 µm for our visible-light experiments). The results are important in that such diffractive structures could be replicated by embossing, chemical-vapor deposition, or other means.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982); erratum 73, 411 (1983).
  2. C. J. Kramer, "Hologon laser scanners for nonimpact printing," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 390 (to be published).
  3. R. A. Bartolini, "Characteristics of relief phase holograms recorded in photoresists," Appl. Opt. 13, 129–139 (1974).
  4. S. L. Norman and M. P. Singh, "Spectral sensitivity and linearity of Shipley AZ-1350J photoresist," Appl. Opt. 14, 818–820 (1975).
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  6. N. K. Sheridon, "Production of blazed holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 316–318 (1968).
  7. D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, "Spektroskopische Beugungsgitter hoher Teilungsgenauigkeit erzeugt mit Hilfe von Laserlicht und Photoresistschichten," Optik 30, 475–487 (1970).
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  11. R. Kurtz and R. Owen, "Holographic recording materials—a review," Opt. Eng. 14, 393–401 (1975).
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  13. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  14. H. Nassenstein, "Rekonstruktion von Hologrammen mit höherem Beugungswirkungsgrad," Optik 30, 201–205 (1969).
  15. W. Lee and W. Streifer, "Diffraction efficiency of evanescentwave holograms. I. TE polarization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 795–801 (1978).

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

R. F. Stevens and M. C. Hutley, "Interference techniques for generating diffracting optical components," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 163, 84–91 (1979).

1978 (1)

1975 (2)

S. L. Norman and M. P. Singh, "Spectral sensitivity and linearity of Shipley AZ-1350J photoresist," Appl. Opt. 14, 818–820 (1975).

R. Kurtz and R. Owen, "Holographic recording materials—a review," Opt. Eng. 14, 393–401 (1975).

1974 (2)

1970 (3)

1969 (2)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

H. Nassenstein, "Rekonstruktion von Hologrammen mit höherem Beugungswirkungsgrad," Optik 30, 201–205 (1969).

1968 (1)

N. K. Sheridon, "Production of blazed holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 316–318 (1968).

Alferness, R.

R. Alferness, "Optical propagation in holographic gratings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan (Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1976).

Bartolini, R.

Bartolini, R. A.

Beesley, M. J.

Castledine, J. G.

Gaylord, T. K.

Hannan, W.

Hutley, M. C.

R. F. Stevens and M. C. Hutley, "Interference techniques for generating diffracting optical components," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 163, 84–91 (1979).

Iwata, F.

Karlsons, D.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Kramer, C. J.

C. J. Kramer, "Hologon laser scanners for nonimpact printing," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 390 (to be published).

Kurtz, R.

R. Kurtz and R. Owen, "Holographic recording materials—a review," Opt. Eng. 14, 393–401 (1975).

Lee, W.

Lurie, M.

Moharam, M. G.

Nassenstein, H.

H. Nassenstein, "Rekonstruktion von Hologrammen mit höherem Beugungswirkungsgrad," Optik 30, 201–205 (1969).

Norman, S. L.

Owen, R.

R. Kurtz and R. Owen, "Holographic recording materials—a review," Opt. Eng. 14, 393–401 (1975).

Rudolph, D.

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, "Spektroskopische Beugungsgitter hoher Teilungsgenauigkeit erzeugt mit Hilfe von Laserlicht und Photoresistschichten," Optik 30, 475–487 (1970).

Schmahl, G.

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, "Spektroskopische Beugungsgitter hoher Teilungsgenauigkeit erzeugt mit Hilfe von Laserlicht und Photoresistschichten," Optik 30, 475–487 (1970).

Sheridon, N. K.

N. K. Sheridon, "Production of blazed holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 316–318 (1968).

Singh, M. P.

Stevens, R. F.

R. F. Stevens and M. C. Hutley, "Interference techniques for generating diffracting optical components," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 163, 84–91 (1979).

Streifer, W.

Tsujiuchi, J.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. K. Sheridon, "Production of blazed holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 316–318 (1968).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Kurtz and R. Owen, "Holographic recording materials—a review," Opt. Eng. 14, 393–401 (1975).

Optik (2)

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, "Spektroskopische Beugungsgitter hoher Teilungsgenauigkeit erzeugt mit Hilfe von Laserlicht und Photoresistschichten," Optik 30, 475–487 (1970).

H. Nassenstein, "Rekonstruktion von Hologrammen mit höherem Beugungswirkungsgrad," Optik 30, 201–205 (1969).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. F. Stevens and M. C. Hutley, "Interference techniques for generating diffracting optical components," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 163, 84–91 (1979).

Other (2)

C. J. Kramer, "Hologon laser scanners for nonimpact printing," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 390 (to be published).

R. Alferness, "Optical propagation in holographic gratings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan (Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1976).

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