Abstract

Stratified media with periodic surfaces have been used in waveguide-input and waveguide-output couplers and distributed- feedback lasers. We apply the extended-boundary-condition approach to treat the problem of scattering and guidance by stratified media with period surfaces for both the TE and TM polarizations in a unified manner with the use of a transition matrix. Theoretical results are shown to compare well with the experimental data for metallic gratings with surface-plasmon excitations. The anomalous behavior of the diffraction efficiencies is explained with the evanescent Floquet waves, which are excited with incidence angles corresponding to the locations of the dips in the total reflected efficiency plots. Diffraction efficiencies are plotted for wave scattering from corrugated thin-film waveguides with an angle of incidence near that for the waveguide-mode excitation. The guiding constants are also calculated and compared with the results obtained by other numerical methods. The origins of the im ginary parts in the guiding constants are discussed in light of the nonevanscent waves excited in the substrate.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. M. Van den Berg, "Diffraction theory of a reflection grating," Appl. Sci. Res. 24, 261–293 (1971).
  2. L. L. Hope, "Theory of optical grating couplers," Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).
  3. D. Maystre, "A new general integral theory for dielectric coated gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 490–495 (1978).
  4. D. Maystre, "A new theory for multiprofile, buried gratings," Opt. Commun. 26,127–132 (1978).
  5. M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).
  6. M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).
  7. M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).
  8. K. C. Chang, V. Shah, and T. Tamir, "Scattering and guiding of waves by dielectric gratings with arbitrary profiles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 804–813 (1980).
  9. P. C. Waterman, "Scattering by periodic surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 57, 791–802 (1975).
  10. S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Scattering of waves from periodic surfaces," Proc. IEEE 69, 1132–1144 (1981).
  11. S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Wave scattering from a periodic dielectric surface for a general angle of incidence," Radio Sci. 17, 545–557 (1982).
  12. S. L. Chuang and R. K. Johnson, "Acoustic wave scattering from a fluid/solid periodic rough surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1368–1376 (1982).
  13. V. K. Varadan and V. V. Varadan, Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave Scattering–Focus on the T-Matrix Approach (Pergamon, New York, 1979).
  14. R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer- Verlag, New York, 1980).
  15. G. S. Agarwal, "Relation between Waterman's extended boundary condition and the generalized extinction theorem," Phys. Rev. D 14, 1168–1171 (1976).
  16. D. N. Pattanayak and E. Wolf, "General form and a new interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem," Opt. Commun. 6, 217–220 (1972).
  17. J. A. Kong, Theory of Electromagnetic Waves (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 4, pp. 112–121.
  18. T. Tamir, "Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: III.Leaky waves," Optik 38, 269–297 (1973).
  19. T. Tamir, "Beam and waveguide couplers," in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979).
  20. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).
  21. R. E. Collin and E. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part II(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Sec. 19.10, pp. 203–208.
  22. J. L. Uretsky, "Reflection of a plane sound wave from a sinusoidalsurface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1293–1294 (1963).
  23. J. M. Proud, Jr., and P. Tamarkin, "Reflection of sound from a surface of saw-tooth profile," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1298–1301 (1957).
  24. M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).
  25. R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, "A detailed theoretical study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 21, 413–421 (1974).
  26. G. Armand and J. R. Manson, "Scattering by a hard corrugated wall: an exact solution," Phys. Rev. B 18, 6510–6518 (1978).
  27. M. C. Hutley, "An experimental study of the anomalies of sinusoidal diffraction gratings," Opt. Acta 20, 607–624 (1973).
  28. M. C. Hutley and V. M. Bird, "A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).
  29. Y. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, "Plasma radiation from metal gratingsurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 511–514 (1967).
  30. P. Halevi, "Polariton modes at the interface between the conducting or dielectric media," Surf. Sci. 76, 64–90 (1978).
  31. L. G. Schultz, "The optical constants of silver, gold, copper, andaluminum, I. The absorption coefficient 'k" J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 357–362 (1954).
  32. L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, "Optical constants of silver, gold, copper, and aluminum, II. The index of refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362–368 (1954).
  33. A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley,New York, 1982).
  34. M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, "The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating," Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).
  35. M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
  36. A. Hessel and A. A. Oliner, "A new theory of Wood's anomalieson optical gratings," Appl. Opt. 4, 1275–1297 (1965).
  37. K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Bragg-reflection approach for blazed dielectric gratings," Opt. Commun. 26, 327–330 (1978).
  38. K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Simplified approach to surface wave scattering by blazed dielectric gratings," Appl. Opt. 19,282–288(1980).
  39. S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion inRemote Sensing and Direct Measurement (Elsevier, New York,1977).

1982 (2)

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Wave scattering from a periodic dielectric surface for a general angle of incidence," Radio Sci. 17, 545–557 (1982).

S. L. Chuang and R. K. Johnson, "Acoustic wave scattering from a fluid/solid periodic rough surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1368–1376 (1982).

1980 (2)

1978 (5)

K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Bragg-reflection approach for blazed dielectric gratings," Opt. Commun. 26, 327–330 (1978).

G. Armand and J. R. Manson, "Scattering by a hard corrugated wall: an exact solution," Phys. Rev. B 18, 6510–6518 (1978).

P. Halevi, "Polariton modes at the interface between the conducting or dielectric media," Surf. Sci. 76, 64–90 (1978).

D. Maystre, "A new general integral theory for dielectric coated gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 490–495 (1978).

D. Maystre, "A new theory for multiprofile, buried gratings," Opt. Commun. 26,127–132 (1978).

1977 (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).

1976 (2)

G. S. Agarwal, "Relation between Waterman's extended boundary condition and the generalized extinction theorem," Phys. Rev. D 14, 1168–1171 (1976).

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, "The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating," Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).

1975 (2)

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

P. C. Waterman, "Scattering by periodic surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 57, 791–802 (1975).

1974 (1)

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, "A detailed theoretical study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 21, 413–421 (1974).

1973 (6)

M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

M. C. Hutley, "An experimental study of the anomalies of sinusoidal diffraction gratings," Opt. Acta 20, 607–624 (1973).

M. C. Hutley and V. M. Bird, "A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).

T. Tamir, "Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: III.Leaky waves," Optik 38, 269–297 (1973).

1972 (2)

L. L. Hope, "Theory of optical grating couplers," Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).

D. N. Pattanayak and E. Wolf, "General form and a new interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem," Opt. Commun. 6, 217–220 (1972).

1971 (1)

P. M. Van den Berg, "Diffraction theory of a reflection grating," Appl. Sci. Res. 24, 261–293 (1971).

1970 (1)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

1967 (1)

Y. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, "Plasma radiation from metal gratingsurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 511–514 (1967).

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

J. L. Uretsky, "Reflection of a plane sound wave from a sinusoidalsurface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1293–1294 (1963).

1957 (1)

J. M. Proud, Jr., and P. Tamarkin, "Reflection of sound from a surface of saw-tooth profile," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1298–1301 (1957).

1954 (2)

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, "Relation between Waterman's extended boundary condition and the generalized extinction theorem," Phys. Rev. D 14, 1168–1171 (1976).

Armand, G.

G. Armand and J. R. Manson, "Scattering by a hard corrugated wall: an exact solution," Phys. Rev. B 18, 6510–6518 (1978).

Bird, V. M.

M. C. Hutley and V. M. Bird, "A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).

Cadilhac, M.

M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

Chang, K. C.

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Wave scattering from a periodic dielectric surface for a general angle of incidence," Radio Sci. 17, 545–557 (1982).

S. L. Chuang and R. K. Johnson, "Acoustic wave scattering from a fluid/solid periodic rough surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1368–1376 (1982).

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Scattering of waves from periodic surfaces," Proc. IEEE 69, 1132–1144 (1981).

Collin, R. E.

R. E. Collin and E. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part II(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Sec. 19.10, pp. 203–208.

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

Halevi, P.

P. Halevi, "Polariton modes at the interface between the conducting or dielectric media," Surf. Sci. 76, 64–90 (1978).

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

Hessel, A.

Hope, L. L.

L. L. Hope, "Theory of optical grating couplers," Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, "The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating," Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

M. C. Hutley, "An experimental study of the anomalies of sinusoidal diffraction gratings," Opt. Acta 20, 607–624 (1973).

M. C. Hutley and V. M. Bird, "A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).

Johnson, R. K.

S. L. Chuang and R. K. Johnson, "Acoustic wave scattering from a fluid/solid periodic rough surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1368–1376 (1982).

Kong, J. A.

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Wave scattering from a periodic dielectric surface for a general angle of incidence," Radio Sci. 17, 545–557 (1982).

J. A. Kong, Theory of Electromagnetic Waves (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 4, pp. 112–121.

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Scattering of waves from periodic surfaces," Proc. IEEE 69, 1132–1144 (1981).

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

Manson, J. R.

G. Armand and J. R. Manson, "Scattering by a hard corrugated wall: an exact solution," Phys. Rev. B 18, 6510–6518 (1978).

Maystre, D.

D. Maystre, "A new general integral theory for dielectric coated gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 490–495 (1978).

D. Maystre, "A new theory for multiprofile, buried gratings," Opt. Commun. 26,127–132 (1978).

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, "The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating," Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, "A detailed theoretical study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 21, 413–421 (1974).

McPhedran, R. C.

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, "A detailed theoretical study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 21, 413–421 (1974).

Neviere, M.

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

Oliner, A. A.

Pattanayak, D. N.

D. N. Pattanayak and E. Wolf, "General form and a new interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem," Opt. Commun. 6, 217–220 (1972).

Petit, R.

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).

Proud, Jr., J. M.

J. M. Proud, Jr., and P. Tamarkin, "Reflection of sound from a surface of saw-tooth profile," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1298–1301 (1957).

Schultz, L. G.

Schulz, L. G.

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

Shah, V.

Stern, E. A.

Y. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, "Plasma radiation from metal gratingsurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 511–514 (1967).

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).

Tamarkin, P.

J. M. Proud, Jr., and P. Tamarkin, "Reflection of sound from a surface of saw-tooth profile," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1298–1301 (1957).

Tamir, T.

K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Simplified approach to surface wave scattering by blazed dielectric gratings," Appl. Opt. 19,282–288(1980).

K. C. Chang, V. Shah, and T. Tamir, "Scattering and guiding of waves by dielectric gratings with arbitrary profiles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 804–813 (1980).

K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Bragg-reflection approach for blazed dielectric gratings," Opt. Commun. 26, 327–330 (1978).

T. Tamir, "Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: III.Leaky waves," Optik 38, 269–297 (1973).

T. Tamir, "Beam and waveguide couplers," in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979).

Tangherlini, F. R.

Teng, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, "Plasma radiation from metal gratingsurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 511–514 (1967).

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion inRemote Sensing and Direct Measurement (Elsevier, New York,1977).

Uretsky, J. L.

J. L. Uretsky, "Reflection of a plane sound wave from a sinusoidalsurface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1293–1294 (1963).

Van den Berg, P. M.

P. M. Van den Berg, "Diffraction theory of a reflection grating," Appl. Sci. Res. 24, 261–293 (1971).

Varadan, V. K.

V. K. Varadan and V. V. Varadan, Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave Scattering–Focus on the T-Matrix Approach (Pergamon, New York, 1979).

Varadan, V. V.

V. K. Varadan and V. V. Varadan, Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave Scattering–Focus on the T-Matrix Approach (Pergamon, New York, 1979).

Verrill, J. P.

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

Vincent, P.

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

Vincent, P..

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

Waterman, P. C.

P. C. Waterman, "Scattering by periodic surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 57, 791–802 (1975).

Wolf, E.

D. N. Pattanayak and E. Wolf, "General form and a new interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem," Opt. Commun. 6, 217–220 (1972).

Zucker, E. J.

R. E. Collin and E. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part II(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Sec. 19.10, pp. 203–208.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).

Appl. Sci. Res. (1)

P. M. Van den Berg, "Diffraction theory of a reflection grating," Appl. Sci. Res. 24, 261–293 (1971).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 134–141 (1977).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

J. L. Uretsky, "Reflection of a plane sound wave from a sinusoidalsurface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1293–1294 (1963).

S. L. Chuang and R. K. Johnson, "Acoustic wave scattering from a fluid/solid periodic rough surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1368–1376 (1982).

J. Acoust. Soc.Am. (1)

P. C. Waterman, "Scattering by periodic surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 57, 791–802 (1975).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. M. Proud, Jr., and P. Tamarkin, "Reflection of sound from a surface of saw-tooth profile," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1298–1301 (1957).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Nouv. Rev. Optique (1)

M. C. Hutley, J. P. Verrill, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, and P.. Vincent, "Presentation and verification of a differential formulation for the diffraction by conducting gratings," Nouv. Rev. Optique 6, 87–95 (1975).

Opt. Acta (3)

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, "A detailed theoretical study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 21, 413–421 (1974).

M. C. Hutley, "An experimental study of the anomalies of sinusoidal diffraction gratings," Opt. Acta 20, 607–624 (1973).

M. C. Hutley and V. M. Bird, "A detailed experimental study of the anomalies of a sinusoidal diffraction grating," Opt. Acta 20, 771–782 (1973).

Opt. Commun. (8)

K. C. Chang and T. Tamir, "Bragg-reflection approach for blazed dielectric gratings," Opt. Commun. 26, 327–330 (1978).

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, "The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating," Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).

D. N. Pattanayak and E. Wolf, "General form and a new interpretation of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem," Opt. Commun. 6, 217–220 (1972).

D. Maystre, "A new theory for multiprofile, buried gratings," Opt. Commun. 26,127–132 (1978).

M. Neviere, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "About the theory of optical grating coupler-waveguide systems," Opt. Commun. 8, 113–117 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Systematic study of resonances of holographic thin film couplers," Opt. Commun. 9, 48–53 (1973).

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, R. Petit, and M. Cadilhac, "Determination of the coupling coefficient of a holographic thin film coupler," Opt. Commun. 9, 240–244 (1973).

L. L. Hope, "Theory of optical grating couplers," Opt. Commun. 5, 179–182 (1972).

Optik (1)

T. Tamir, "Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: III.Leaky waves," Optik 38, 269–297 (1973).

Phys. Rev. (2)

G. S. Agarwal, "Relation between Waterman's extended boundary condition and the generalized extinction theorem," Phys. Rev. D 14, 1168–1171 (1976).

G. Armand and J. R. Manson, "Scattering by a hard corrugated wall: an exact solution," Phys. Rev. B 18, 6510–6518 (1978).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, "Plasma radiation from metal gratingsurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 511–514 (1967).

Radio Sci. (1)

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Wave scattering from a periodic dielectric surface for a general angle of incidence," Radio Sci. 17, 545–557 (1982).

Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Halevi, "Polariton modes at the interface between the conducting or dielectric media," Surf. Sci. 76, 64–90 (1978).

Other (8)

A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley,New York, 1982).

R. E. Collin and E. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part II(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Sec. 19.10, pp. 203–208.

V. K. Varadan and V. V. Varadan, Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave Scattering–Focus on the T-Matrix Approach (Pergamon, New York, 1979).

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer- Verlag, New York, 1980).

T. Tamir, "Beam and waveguide couplers," in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979).

J. A. Kong, Theory of Electromagnetic Waves (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 4, pp. 112–121.

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, "Scattering of waves from periodic surfaces," Proc. IEEE 69, 1132–1144 (1981).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion inRemote Sensing and Direct Measurement (Elsevier, New York,1977).

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