Abstract

We present the results of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) studies in three samples of <i>p</i>-type Ge with a wide range of absorptive properties. Three mechanisms for DFWM are observed in this material. A model, which iiicludes the mechanisms of the inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorption of <i>p</i>-type Ge and the optical Kerr effect that is due to bound electrons in Ge but not the mechanism of bulk plasma formation that occurs only at extremely high pump intensities, is developed and compared with the experimental results. Pump-beam attenuation by the medium is shown to be an important effect in modeling DFWM. The model, which has no free parameters, fits the experimental data well for samples with small-signal transmission of greater than 20%.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Bergmann, I. Bigio, B. Feldman, and R. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase conjugate reflection via degenerate fourwave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978).
  2. D. E. Watkins, C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Observation of amplified reflection through degenerate four-wave mixing at CO2 laser wavelengths in germanium," Opt. Lett. 6, 76–78 (1981).
  3. See F. Keilmann, "Infrared saturation spectroscopy in p-type germanium," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 592–597 (1976); C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Saturation behavior of p-type germanium at CO2 laser wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 1, 93–95 (1977).
  4. D. E. Watkins, C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Determination of the third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Ge through ellipse rotation," Opt. Lett. 5, 248–249 (1980).
  5. R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978); erratum 3, 205 (1978).
  6. See H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, "Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium," Phys. Rev. 91,1342–1346 (1953); E. D. Capron and O. L. Brill, "Absorption coefficient as a function of resistance for optical germanium at 10 µm," Appl. Opt. 12, 569–572 (1973).
  7. D. E. Watkins, "A study of degenerate four-wave mixing in germanium and rhenate-doped potassium chloride at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths," Ph.D. Thesis, catalog no. 1982-0-576-020/27 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1982).
  8. D. E. Watkins, J. F. Figueira, and S. J. Thomas, "Observation of resonantly enhanced degenerate four-wave mixing in doped alkali halides," Opt. Lett. 5, 169–171 (1980).
  9. R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time-reversed wavefronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

See F. Keilmann, "Infrared saturation spectroscopy in p-type germanium," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 592–597 (1976); C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Saturation behavior of p-type germanium at CO2 laser wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 1, 93–95 (1977).

1953 (1)

See H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, "Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium," Phys. Rev. 91,1342–1346 (1953); E. D. Capron and O. L. Brill, "Absorption coefficient as a function of resistance for optical germanium at 10 µm," Appl. Opt. 12, 569–572 (1973).

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978); erratum 3, 205 (1978).

Bergmann, E.

Bigio, I.

Briggs, H. B.

See H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, "Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium," Phys. Rev. 91,1342–1346 (1953); E. D. Capron and O. L. Brill, "Absorption coefficient as a function of resistance for optical germanium at 10 µm," Appl. Opt. 12, 569–572 (1973).

Feldman, B.

Figueira, J. F.

Fisher, R.

Fletcher, R. C.

See H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, "Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium," Phys. Rev. 91,1342–1346 (1953); E. D. Capron and O. L. Brill, "Absorption coefficient as a function of resistance for optical germanium at 10 µm," Appl. Opt. 12, 569–572 (1973).

Hellwarth, R. W.

Keilmann, F.

See F. Keilmann, "Infrared saturation spectroscopy in p-type germanium," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 592–597 (1976); C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Saturation behavior of p-type germanium at CO2 laser wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 1, 93–95 (1977).

Lind, R. C.

R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978); erratum 3, 205 (1978).

Phipps, Jr., C. R.

Thomas, S. J.

Watkins, D. E.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

See F. Keilmann, "Infrared saturation spectroscopy in p-type germanium," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 592–597 (1976); C. R. Phipps, Jr., and S. J. Thomas, "Saturation behavior of p-type germanium at CO2 laser wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 1, 93–95 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

See H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, "Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium," Phys. Rev. 91,1342–1346 (1953); E. D. Capron and O. L. Brill, "Absorption coefficient as a function of resistance for optical germanium at 10 µm," Appl. Opt. 12, 569–572 (1973).

Other (2)

D. E. Watkins, "A study of degenerate four-wave mixing in germanium and rhenate-doped potassium chloride at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths," Ph.D. Thesis, catalog no. 1982-0-576-020/27 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1982).

R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978); erratum 3, 205 (1978).

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