Abstract

Aspects of thermally induced nonlinearities in the index of refraction are investigated for the case of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). An expression for the reflectivity is derived within the framework of a coupled thermodynamic–electromagnetic theory, and some implications for the conjugation efficiency are briefly discussed. We also report on experimental measurements of phase-conjugate reflectivities in excess of 200% at 532 nm and comment on the role of saturation effects and pump delays in obtaining the observed efficiencies. Finally, the results of near-field conjugation beam-quality studies are presented with a view toward examining some of the parameters crucial to conjugation fidelity in typical DFWM experimental setups.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. For reviews on the subject, see, D. M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Opt. Eng. 156–183 (1982); C. R. Giuliano, "Appplications of optical phase conjugation," Phys. Today 34, 27–35 (1981).
  2. M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang, "Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737–743 (1981).
  3. J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.
  4. G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).
  5. R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).
  6. R. M. Herman and M. A. Gray, "Theoretical prediction of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 824–828 (1967).
  7. For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).
  8. H. J. Hoffman, "Thermally induced degenerate-four-wavemixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  9. J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, A. Yariv, and R. K. Jain, "Continuous backward-wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 4, 42–44 (1979).
  10. W. Rother, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1120–1135 (1970).
  11. R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
  12. H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).
  13. A. Yariv, "Four-wave nonlinear optical mixing as real-time holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).
  14. R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, "Degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978).
  15. D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).
  16. G. S. Agarwal and E. Wolf, "Theory of phase conjugation with weak scatterers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 321–326 (1982).
  17. D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, and A. Yariv, "Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degeneratefour-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).

1982 (4)

For reviews on the subject, see, D. M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Opt. Eng. 156–183 (1982); C. R. Giuliano, "Appplications of optical phase conjugation," Phys. Today 34, 27–35 (1981).

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.

R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).

G. S. Agarwal and E. Wolf, "Theory of phase conjugation with weak scatterers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 321–326 (1982).

1981 (2)

M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett, and K. Chiang, "Projection photolithography by wave-front conjugation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737–743 (1981).

R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).

1979 (2)

J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, A. Yariv, and R. K. Jain, "Continuous backward-wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 4, 42–44 (1979).

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).

1978 (3)

1975 (1)

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).

1971 (1)

For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).

1967 (1)

R. M. Herman and M. A. Gray, "Theoretical prediction of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 824–828 (1967).

Abrams, R. L.

Agarwal, G. S.

Angew, Z.

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

AuYeung, J.

Battra, I. P.

For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).

Caro, R. C.

R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).

Caro, R. G.

R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).

Chiang, K.

Eichler, H.

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

Enns, R. H.

For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).

Enterlein, G.

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

Fekete, D.

Gower, M. C.

R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).

R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).

Gray, M. A.

R. M. Herman and M. A. Gray, "Theoretical prediction of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 824–828 (1967).

Hanchett, V. C.

Hellwarth, R. W.

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).

Herman, R. M.

R. M. Herman and M. A. Gray, "Theoretical prediction of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 824–828 (1967).

Hoffman, H. J.

H. J. Hoffman, "Thermally induced degenerate-four-wavemixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Jain, R. K.

Johnson, K. M.

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).

Levenson, M. D.

Lind, R. C.

Martin, G.

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).

Munschau, J.

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

Naturforsch, Z.

W. Rother, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1120–1135 (1970).

Pepper, D. M.

Phillion, D. W.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).

Pohl, D.

For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).

Rother, W.

W. Rother, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1120–1135 (1970).

Siegman, A. E.

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).

Stahl, H.

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

White, J. O.

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.

Wolf, E.

Yariv, A.

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.

J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, A. Yariv, and R. K. Jain, "Continuous backward-wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 4, 42–44 (1979).

A. Yariv, "Four-wave nonlinear optical mixing as real-time holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, and A. Yariv, "Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degeneratefour-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, "Infrared-to-optical image conversion by Bragg reflection from thermally induced index gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371–373 (1979).

R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).

D. W. Phillion, D. J. Kuizenga, and A. E. Siegman, "Subnanosecond relaxation time measurements using a transient induced grating method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 85–87 (1975).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Caro and M. C. Gower, "Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Yariv, "Four-wave nonlinear optical mixing as real-time holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Spatial information processing and distortion correction via four-wave mixing," Opt. Eng. 21, 224–230 (1982), and references therein.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. M. Herman and M. A. Gray, "Theoretical prediction of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 824–828 (1967).

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

For a thorough review of this subject see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enns, and D. Pohl, "Stimulated thermal scattering of light," Phys. Status Solidi 48, 11–63 (1971).

Other (4)

H. J. Hoffman, "Thermally induced degenerate-four-wavemixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

W. Rother, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1120–1135 (1970).

For reviews on the subject, see, D. M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Opt. Eng. 156–183 (1982); C. R. Giuliano, "Appplications of optical phase conjugation," Phys. Today 34, 27–35 (1981).

H. Eichler, G. Enterlein, J. Munschau, and H. Stahl, Z. Angew. Phys. 31, 1–4 (1971).

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