Abstract

The phase-conjugate laser (PCL) is analyzed as a network of energy flow with gain, saturation, and loss Most PCL's fit into one of three generic forms of energy coupling, defined by how the phase-conjugate mirror is pumped The self-pumped PCL is a nonlinear feedback system with constraints not present in ordinary lasers The internal and external powers are roots of a transcendental function that includes arbitrary gain and saturation The PCL's are compared for useful output power with an ordinary laser of the same gain/loss Most PCL's have maximum output as double-pass amplifiers (weak feedback and high extraction) The externally pumped PCL is inherently inefficient except at high gain The self-pumped PCL's are efficient at high and low gain and are multistable optical devices with discrete power levels The multistability is generic and does not depend on any specific form of the reflectance function The higher states have not been seen experimentally because they cannot develop from the lowest state but must be induced by hard excitation of the PCL

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. P A Belanger, A Hardy, and A E Siegman, "Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors," Appl Opt 19, 602–609 (1980), A Hardy, P A Belanger, and A E Siegman, "Orthogonality properties of phase conjugate optical resonators," Appl Opt 21, 1122–1124 (1982)
  2. I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)
  3. M G Reznikov and A I Khizhnyak, "Properties of a resonator with a wavefront-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)
  4. I M Bel'dyugin and E M Zemskov, "Calculation of the field in a laser resonator with a wave-front-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)
  5. G P Agrawal and J L Boulnois, "Waveguide resonators with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 7, 159–161 (1982), J L Boulnois and G P Agrawal, "Mode discrimination and coupling losses in rectangular-waveguide resonators with conventional and phase-conjugate mirrors," J Opt Soc Am 72, 853–860 (1982)
  6. J F Lam and W P Brown, "Optical resonators with phaseconjugate mirrors," Opt Lett 5, 61–63 (1980)
  7. J Feinberg and R Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating miror with continuous-wave gain," Opt Lett 5, 519–521 (1980), errata 6, 257 (1981)
  8. J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)
  9. S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)
  10. A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)
  11. R C Lind and D G Steel, "Demonstration of the longitudinal modes and aberration-correction properties of a continuous-wave dye laser with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 6, 554–556 (1981)
  12. M C Gower and R G Caro, "KrF laser with a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror," Opt Lett 7, 162–164 (1982)
  13. B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)
  14. R K Jamn and G J Dunning, "Spatial and temporal properties of a continuous-wave phase-conjugate resonator based on the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Opt Lett 7, 420–422 (1982)
  15. W M Grossman and D M Shemwell, "Practical constraints on phase conjugation by four-wave mixing," presented at Lasers '79 Conference
  16. W W Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J Appl Phys 36, 2487–2490 (1965)
  17. A Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap 9
  18. R Hellwarth, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J Opt Soc Am 67, 1–3 (1977)
  19. A Yariv and D M Pepper, "Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt Lett 1, 16–18 (1977)
  20. J H Marburger and J F Lam, "Nonlinear theory of degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 34, 389–391 (1979), "Effect of nonlinear index changes on degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 35, 249–251 (1979)
  21. L Casperson and A Yariv, "The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-8, 69–73 (1972)

1982

M C Gower and R G Caro, "KrF laser with a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror," Opt Lett 7, 162–164 (1982)

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

R K Jamn and G J Dunning, "Spatial and temporal properties of a continuous-wave phase-conjugate resonator based on the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Opt Lett 7, 420–422 (1982)

1981

A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)

R C Lind and D G Steel, "Demonstration of the longitudinal modes and aberration-correction properties of a continuous-wave dye laser with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 6, 554–556 (1981)

1980

M G Reznikov and A I Khizhnyak, "Properties of a resonator with a wavefront-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

I M Bel'dyugin and E M Zemskov, "Calculation of the field in a laser resonator with a wave-front-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

J F Lam and W P Brown, "Optical resonators with phaseconjugate mirrors," Opt Lett 5, 61–63 (1980)

J Feinberg and R Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating miror with continuous-wave gain," Opt Lett 5, 519–521 (1980), errata 6, 257 (1981)

1979

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)

I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)

1977

R Hellwarth, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J Opt Soc Am 67, 1–3 (1977)

A Yariv and D M Pepper, "Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt Lett 1, 16–18 (1977)

1972

L Casperson and A Yariv, "The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-8, 69–73 (1972)

1965

W W Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J Appl Phys 36, 2487–2490 (1965)

Agrawal, G P

G P Agrawal and J L Boulnois, "Waveguide resonators with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 7, 159–161 (1982), J L Boulnois and G P Agrawal, "Mode discrimination and coupling losses in rectangular-waveguide resonators with conventional and phase-conjugate mirrors," J Opt Soc Am 72, 853–860 (1982)

Auyeung, J

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

Belanger, P A

P A Belanger, A Hardy, and A E Siegman, "Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors," Appl Opt 19, 602–609 (1980), A Hardy, P A Belanger, and A E Siegman, "Orthogonality properties of phase conjugate optical resonators," Appl Opt 21, 1122–1124 (1982)

Bel'dyugin, I M

I M Bel'dyugin and E M Zemskov, "Calculation of the field in a laser resonator with a wave-front-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)

Boulnois, J L

G P Agrawal and J L Boulnois, "Waveguide resonators with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 7, 159–161 (1982), J L Boulnois and G P Agrawal, "Mode discrimination and coupling losses in rectangular-waveguide resonators with conventional and phase-conjugate mirrors," J Opt Soc Am 72, 853–860 (1982)

Brown, W P

J F Lam and W P Brown, "Optical resonators with phaseconjugate mirrors," Opt Lett 5, 61–63 (1980)

Caro, R G

M C Gower and R G Caro, "KrF laser with a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror," Opt Lett 7, 162–164 (1982)

Casperson, L

L Casperson and A Yariv, "The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-8, 69–73 (1972)

Cronin-Golomb, M

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

Dunning, G J

R K Jamn and G J Dunning, "Spatial and temporal properties of a continuous-wave phase-conjugate resonator based on the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Opt Lett 7, 420–422 (1982)

Feinberg, J

J Feinberg and R Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating miror with continuous-wave gain," Opt Lett 5, 519–521 (1980), errata 6, 257 (1981)

Fekete, D

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

Fischer, B

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

Galushkin, M G

I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)

Gower, M C

M C Gower and R G Caro, "KrF laser with a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror," Opt Lett 7, 162–164 (1982)

Grossman, W M

W M Grossman and D M Shemwell, "Practical constraints on phase conjugation by four-wave mixing," presented at Lasers '79 Conference

Hardy, A

P A Belanger, A Hardy, and A E Siegman, "Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors," Appl Opt 19, 602–609 (1980), A Hardy, P A Belanger, and A E Siegman, "Orthogonality properties of phase conjugate optical resonators," Appl Opt 21, 1122–1124 (1982)

Hellwarth, R

J Feinberg and R Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating miror with continuous-wave gain," Opt Lett 5, 519–521 (1980), errata 6, 257 (1981)

R Hellwarth, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J Opt Soc Am 67, 1–3 (1977)

Jamn, R K

R K Jamn and G J Dunning, "Spatial and temporal properties of a continuous-wave phase-conjugate resonator based on the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Opt Lett 7, 420–422 (1982)

Khizhnyak, A I

M G Reznikov and A I Khizhnyak, "Properties of a resonator with a wavefront-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

Khiznyak, A I

S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)

Lam, J F

J F Lam and W P Brown, "Optical resonators with phaseconjugate mirrors," Opt Lett 5, 61–63 (1980)

J H Marburger and J F Lam, "Nonlinear theory of degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 34, 389–391 (1979), "Effect of nonlinear index changes on degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 35, 249–251 (1979)

Lesnik, S A

S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)

Lind, R C

R C Lind and D G Steel, "Demonstration of the longitudinal modes and aberration-correction properties of a continuous-wave dye laser with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 6, 554–556 (1981)

Marburger, J H

J H Marburger and J F Lam, "Nonlinear theory of degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 34, 389–391 (1979), "Effect of nonlinear index changes on degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 35, 249–251 (1979)

Pepper, D M

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

A Yariv and D M Pepper, "Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt Lett 1, 16–18 (1977)

Reznikov, M G

M G Reznikov and A I Khizhnyak, "Properties of a resonator with a wavefront-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

Rigrod, W W

W W Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J Appl Phys 36, 2487–2490 (1965)

Shemwell, D M

W M Grossman and D M Shemwell, "Practical constraints on phase conjugation by four-wave mixing," presented at Lasers '79 Conference

Siegman, A E

A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)

P A Belanger, A Hardy, and A E Siegman, "Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors," Appl Opt 19, 602–609 (1980), A Hardy, P A Belanger, and A E Siegman, "Orthogonality properties of phase conjugate optical resonators," Appl Opt 21, 1122–1124 (1982)

Soskin, M S

S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)

Steel, D G

R C Lind and D G Steel, "Demonstration of the longitudinal modes and aberration-correction properties of a continuous-wave dye laser with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 6, 554–556 (1981)

Van Eck, J L

A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)

Vanherzeele, A

A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)

White, J O

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

Yariv, A

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

A Yariv and D M Pepper, "Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt Lett 1, 16–18 (1977)

L Casperson and A Yariv, "The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-8, 69–73 (1972)

A Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap 9

Zemskov, E M

I M Bel'dyugin and E M Zemskov, "Calculation of the field in a laser resonator with a wave-front-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)

Appl Phys Lett

B Fischer, M Cronin-Golomb, J O White, A Yariv, "Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Appl Phys Lett 40, 450–452 (1982)

IEEE J Quantum Electron

J Auyeung, D Fekete, D M Pepper, and A Yariv, "A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-15, 1180–1188 (1979)

L Casperson and A Yariv, "The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser," IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-8, 69–73 (1972)

J Appl Phys

W W Rigrod, "Saturation effects in high-gain lasers," J Appl Phys 36, 2487–2490 (1965)

J Opt Soc Am

R Hellwarth, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J Opt Soc Am 67, 1–3 (1977)

Opt Lett

A Yariv and D M Pepper, "Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt Lett 1, 16–18 (1977)

R K Jamn and G J Dunning, "Spatial and temporal properties of a continuous-wave phase-conjugate resonator based on the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3," Opt Lett 7, 420–422 (1982)

A Vanherzeele, J L Van Eck, and A E Siegman, "Mode-locked laser oscillation using self-pumped phase-conjugate reflection," Opt Lett 6, 467–469 (1981)

R C Lind and D G Steel, "Demonstration of the longitudinal modes and aberration-correction properties of a continuous-wave dye laser with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 6, 554–556 (1981)

M C Gower and R G Caro, "KrF laser with a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror," Opt Lett 7, 162–164 (1982)

J F Lam and W P Brown, "Optical resonators with phaseconjugate mirrors," Opt Lett 5, 61–63 (1980)

J Feinberg and R Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating miror with continuous-wave gain," Opt Lett 5, 519–521 (1980), errata 6, 257 (1981)

Sov J Quantum Electron

I M Bel'dyugin, M G Galushkin, and E M Zemskov, "Properties of resonators with wavefront-reversing mirrors," Sov J Quantum Electron 9, 20–23 (1979)

M G Reznikov and A I Khizhnyak, "Properties of a resonator with a wavefront-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

I M Bel'dyugin and E M Zemskov, "Calculation of the field in a laser resonator with a wave-front-reversing mirror," Sov J Quantum Electron 10, 764–765 (1980)

Sov Phys Tech Phys

S A Lesnik, M S Soskin, and A I Khiznyak, "Laser with a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering complex-conjugate mirror," Sov Phys Tech Phys 24, 1249–1250 (1979)

Other

G P Agrawal and J L Boulnois, "Waveguide resonators with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt Lett 7, 159–161 (1982), J L Boulnois and G P Agrawal, "Mode discrimination and coupling losses in rectangular-waveguide resonators with conventional and phase-conjugate mirrors," J Opt Soc Am 72, 853–860 (1982)

W M Grossman and D M Shemwell, "Practical constraints on phase conjugation by four-wave mixing," presented at Lasers '79 Conference

J H Marburger and J F Lam, "Nonlinear theory of degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 34, 389–391 (1979), "Effect of nonlinear index changes on degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl Phys Lett 35, 249–251 (1979)

A Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap 9

P A Belanger, A Hardy, and A E Siegman, "Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors," Appl Opt 19, 602–609 (1980), A Hardy, P A Belanger, and A E Siegman, "Orthogonality properties of phase conjugate optical resonators," Appl Opt 21, 1122–1124 (1982)

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