Abstract

Time thresholds, i.e., the minimal durations necessary to just detect a change in brightness, were measured for light increments and decrements of a 1° test spot centered on a background of 20°. Background luminance varied from −1 to 3 log td and retinal eccentricity from 0° to 50°. Step size ranged from 0.04 to 1.5 log units and was the same in absolute units for both directions. Two types of stimuli were used: Type A, in which increments and decrements emerge from the same uniform background, and Type B, in which increments are the same as in Type A but decrements consist of a brief interruption of the test spot. Type A stimulation resulted in similar time thresholds for increments and decrements or, under some conditions, slightly shorter decrement thresholds. Type B stimulation resulted in similar thresholds for foveal vision. However, with increasing step size, decreasing background luminance, and increasing eccentricity, the time threshold for the decrement progressively exceeded that for the increment (up to 80 msec). This difference is attributed to different rise and fall times of the photoreceptor response as well as to Troxler's effect.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Gildemeister, "Über die Wahrnehmbarkeit von Lichtlücken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 256–267 (1914).
  2. D. Rutenburg, "Über die Netzhautreizung durch kurzdauernde Lichtülitze und Lichtlficken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 268–284 (1914).
  3. D. Zipkin, "Über die Wirkung von Lichtlücken auf grössere Netzhautbezirke," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 49, 89–98 (1916).
  4. R. M. Herrick, "Foveal luminance discrimination as a function of the duration of the decrement or increment in luminance," J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437–443 (1956).
  5. J. J. Vos, A. Lazet, and M. A. Bouman, "Visual contrast thresholdsin practical problems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1065–1068 (1956).
  6. M. Ikeda, "Temporal summation of positive and negative flashes in the visual system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1527–1534 (1965).
  7. C. Rashbass, "The visibility of transient changes of luminance," J. Physiol. (London) 210, 165–186 (1970).
  8. J. A. J. Roufs, "Dynamic properties of vision—IV: Thresholdsof decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion," Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).
  9. H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
  10. E. Aulhorn, "Über die Beziehung zwischen Lichtsinn und Sehschärfe,"Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 167, 4–74 (1964).
  11. A. D. Short, "Decremental and incremental visual thresholds," J. Physiol. (London) 185, 646–654 (1966).
  12. A. S. Patel and R. W. Jones, "Increment and decrement visualthresholds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 696–699 (1968).
  13. The terms B system and D system were introduced by Jung14,15 to relate the sensation of brighter (B) to the activity of on-center neurons and the sensation of darker (D) to the activity of offcenter neurons.
  14. R. Jung, "Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell- und Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).
  15. R. Jung, "Visual perception and neurophysiology," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Jung, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), Vol. VII/3A, pp. 1–152.
  16. H. Bornschein, "Der Einfluss zeitlicher Reizgradienten auf die Impulsaktivität retinaler Neurone der Katze," Pflugers Arch. 275, 478–494 (1962).
  17. H. Bornschein, "Die subjektive Unterscheidung zeitlicher Gradienten optischer Reize," Vision Res. 2, 463–467 (1962).
  18. G. Baumgartner, F. Eichin, and A. Schulz, "Unterschiede neuronaler Aktivierung im zentralen visuellen System bei langdauernder Verdunklung und Belichtung des Auges," Pfluegers Arch.279, R4 (A) (1964).
  19. B. A. Brooks and H. Bohn, "Activity in the optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat during the first moments of light adaptation in the scotopic region," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 213–228 (1970).
  20. H. Scheich and A. Korn, "Timing properties and temporal summation in the retina," Pfluegers Arch. 327, 16–36 (1971).
  21. B. Fischer, D. Krause, and H. U. May, "Schwellenerregung, zeitliche Summation und Impulsreaktionsfunktion in der Retina der Katze: Temporale rezeptive Felder retinaler Ganglienzellen," Exp. Brain Res. 15, 212–224 (1972).
  22. W. A. Phillips and W. Singer, "The function and interaction of 'on' and 'off transients in vision. I: Psychophysics," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 493–506 (1974).
  23. W. Singer and W. A. Phillips, "Function and interaction of 'on' and and 'off' transients in vision. II: Neurophysiology," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 507–521 (1974).
  24. R. T. Ross, "The fusion frequency in different areas of the visual field: IV. Fusion frequency as a function of the light–dark ratio," J. Gen. Psychol. 29, 129–144 (1943).
  25. C. Reidemeister, "Reaktionen einzelner Neurone der Katzenretina bei Flimmerlicht mit verschiedenem Hell-Dunkelverhaltnis," Pfluegers Arch. 268, 51–52 (1958).
  26. O.-J. Grfisser and C. Reidemeister, "Flimmerlichtuntersuchungen an der Katzenretina. II. Off-Neurone," Z. Biol. 111, 254–270 (1959).
  27. W. M. Vicars and A. Lit, "Reaction time to incremental and decremental target luminance changes at various photopic background levels," Vision Res. 15, 261–265 (1975).
  28. B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, "Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).
  29. G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  30. Temporal summation is commonly found to hold for durations up to 100 msec in foveal vision but extends to longer durations in scotopic and peripheral vision31,32 as well as for decrement stimuli.1,2
  31. B. Stewart, "Temporal summation during dark-adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 449–457 (1972).
  32. P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial and temporal summation in the dark-adapted retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).
  33. J. Kruger and B. Fischer, "Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retina] and geniculate neurons of the cat," Biol. Cybern. 20, 223–236 (1975).
  34. H. De Vries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica (Utrecht) 10, 553–564 (1943).
  35. H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).
  36. T. E. Cohn, "A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold," Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).
  37. P. G. Lillywhite, "Multiplicative intrinsic noise and the limits to visual performance," Vision Res. 21, 291–296 (1981).
  38. R. D. Penn and W. A. Hagins, "Kinetics of photocurrent of retinal rods," Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).
  39. D. N. Whitten qnd K. T. Brown, "The time courses of late receptor potentials from monkey cones and rods," Vision Res. 13, 107–135 (1973).
  40. D. N. Whitten and K. T. Brown, "Slowed decay of the monkey's cone receptor potential by intense stimuli, and protection from this effect by tight adaptation," Vision Res. 13, 1659–1667 (1973).
  41. Qualitative remarks suggest that, in the case of the decrement, subjects occasionally responded to the luminance increment at the end of the stimulus rather than to the decrement at the beginning.
  42. R. W. Bowen, J. Pola, and L. Matin, "Visual persistence: effects of flash luminance, duration and energy," Vision Res. 14, 295–303 (1974).
  43. B. Sakitt and G. M. Long, "Cones determine subjective offset of a stimulus but rods determine total persistence," Vision Res. 19, 1439–1441 (1979).
  44. W. S. Geisler, "Increment threshold detection latency in the rod and cone systems," Vision Res. 20, 981–994 (1980).
  45. B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
  46. H. D. Baker, M. D. Doran, and K. E. Miller, "Early dark adaptation to dim luminances," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1065–1070 (1959).
  47. H. D. Baker, "Initial stages of light and dark adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 98–103 (1963).
  48. H. D. Baker and W. J. Donovan, "Early dark adaptation, the receptor potential and lateral effects on the retina," Vision Res. 22, 645–651 (1982).
  49. B. Lingelbach and F. J. Haberich, "Differential thresholds of luminance under fixed and sudden change of adaptation," Pfluegers Arch. 362, R45 (A) (1976).
  50. D. Troxier, "Über das Verschwinden gegebener Gegenstände innerhalb unseres Gesichtskreises," Ophthalmol. Bibliothek (Jena) 2, 1–53 (1804).
  51. F. J. J. Clarke, "A study of Troxler's effect," Opt. Acta 7, 219–236 (1960).
  52. C. Neumeyer and L. Spillmann, "Fading of steadily fixated large test fields in extrafoveal vision," Pfluegers Arch. 368, R40 (A) (1977).
  53. P. A. Cibis, "Lokaladaptation," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).
  54. W. H. Ehrenstein and L. Spillmann, "Temporal thresholds forincrement and decrement changes in luminance," Pfluegers Arch. 389, R35(A) (1981).

1982 (1)

H. D. Baker and W. J. Donovan, "Early dark adaptation, the receptor potential and lateral effects on the retina," Vision Res. 22, 645–651 (1982).

1981 (3)

W. H. Ehrenstein and L. Spillmann, "Temporal thresholds forincrement and decrement changes in luminance," Pfluegers Arch. 389, R35(A) (1981).

P. Zuidema, H. Verschuure, M. A. Bouman, and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial and temporal summation in the dark-adapted retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1472–1480 (1981).

P. G. Lillywhite, "Multiplicative intrinsic noise and the limits to visual performance," Vision Res. 21, 291–296 (1981).

1980 (1)

W. S. Geisler, "Increment threshold detection latency in the rod and cone systems," Vision Res. 20, 981–994 (1980).

1979 (1)

B. Sakitt and G. M. Long, "Cones determine subjective offset of a stimulus but rods determine total persistence," Vision Res. 19, 1439–1441 (1979).

1977 (1)

C. Neumeyer and L. Spillmann, "Fading of steadily fixated large test fields in extrafoveal vision," Pfluegers Arch. 368, R40 (A) (1977).

1976 (1)

B. Lingelbach and F. J. Haberich, "Differential thresholds of luminance under fixed and sudden change of adaptation," Pfluegers Arch. 362, R45 (A) (1976).

1975 (3)

J. Kruger and B. Fischer, "Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retina] and geniculate neurons of the cat," Biol. Cybern. 20, 223–236 (1975).

W. M. Vicars and A. Lit, "Reaction time to incremental and decremental target luminance changes at various photopic background levels," Vision Res. 15, 261–265 (1975).

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, "Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).

1974 (5)

W. A. Phillips and W. Singer, "The function and interaction of 'on' and 'off transients in vision. I: Psychophysics," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 493–506 (1974).

W. Singer and W. A. Phillips, "Function and interaction of 'on' and and 'off' transients in vision. II: Neurophysiology," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 507–521 (1974).

T. E. Cohn, "A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold," Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).

J. A. J. Roufs, "Dynamic properties of vision—IV: Thresholdsof decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion," Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).

R. W. Bowen, J. Pola, and L. Matin, "Visual persistence: effects of flash luminance, duration and energy," Vision Res. 14, 295–303 (1974).

1973 (2)

D. N. Whitten qnd K. T. Brown, "The time courses of late receptor potentials from monkey cones and rods," Vision Res. 13, 107–135 (1973).

D. N. Whitten and K. T. Brown, "Slowed decay of the monkey's cone receptor potential by intense stimuli, and protection from this effect by tight adaptation," Vision Res. 13, 1659–1667 (1973).

1972 (3)

R. D. Penn and W. A. Hagins, "Kinetics of photocurrent of retinal rods," Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).

B. Stewart, "Temporal summation during dark-adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 449–457 (1972).

B. Fischer, D. Krause, and H. U. May, "Schwellenerregung, zeitliche Summation und Impulsreaktionsfunktion in der Retina der Katze: Temporale rezeptive Felder retinaler Ganglienzellen," Exp. Brain Res. 15, 212–224 (1972).

1971 (1)

H. Scheich and A. Korn, "Timing properties and temporal summation in the retina," Pfluegers Arch. 327, 16–36 (1971).

1970 (2)

B. A. Brooks and H. Bohn, "Activity in the optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat during the first moments of light adaptation in the scotopic region," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 213–228 (1970).

C. Rashbass, "The visibility of transient changes of luminance," J. Physiol. (London) 210, 165–186 (1970).

1968 (1)

1966 (2)

A. D. Short, "Decremental and incremental visual thresholds," J. Physiol. (London) 185, 646–654 (1966).

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (4)

G. Baumgartner, F. Eichin, and A. Schulz, "Unterschiede neuronaler Aktivierung im zentralen visuellen System bei langdauernder Verdunklung und Belichtung des Auges," Pfluegers Arch.279, R4 (A) (1964).

E. Aulhorn, "Über die Beziehung zwischen Lichtsinn und Sehschärfe,"Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 167, 4–74 (1964).

R. Jung, "Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell- und Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).

P. A. Cibis, "Lokaladaptation," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).

1963 (1)

1962 (2)

H. Bornschein, "Der Einfluss zeitlicher Reizgradienten auf die Impulsaktivität retinaler Neurone der Katze," Pflugers Arch. 275, 478–494 (1962).

H. Bornschein, "Die subjektive Unterscheidung zeitlicher Gradienten optischer Reize," Vision Res. 2, 463–467 (1962).

1960 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, "A study of Troxler's effect," Opt. Acta 7, 219–236 (1960).

1959 (2)

H. D. Baker, M. D. Doran, and K. E. Miller, "Early dark adaptation to dim luminances," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1065–1070 (1959).

O.-J. Grfisser and C. Reidemeister, "Flimmerlichtuntersuchungen an der Katzenretina. II. Off-Neurone," Z. Biol. 111, 254–270 (1959).

1958 (1)

C. Reidemeister, "Reaktionen einzelner Neurone der Katzenretina bei Flimmerlicht mit verschiedenem Hell-Dunkelverhaltnis," Pfluegers Arch. 268, 51–52 (1958).

1957 (1)

H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).

1956 (2)

R. M. Herrick, "Foveal luminance discrimination as a function of the duration of the decrement or increment in luminance," J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437–443 (1956).

J. J. Vos, A. Lazet, and M. A. Bouman, "Visual contrast thresholdsin practical problems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1065–1068 (1956).

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).

1946 (1)

1943 (2)

H. De Vries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica (Utrecht) 10, 553–564 (1943).

R. T. Ross, "The fusion frequency in different areas of the visual field: IV. Fusion frequency as a function of the light–dark ratio," J. Gen. Psychol. 29, 129–144 (1943).

1916 (1)

D. Zipkin, "Über die Wirkung von Lichtlücken auf grössere Netzhautbezirke," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 49, 89–98 (1916).

1914 (2)

M. Gildemeister, "Über die Wahrnehmbarkeit von Lichtlücken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 256–267 (1914).

D. Rutenburg, "Über die Netzhautreizung durch kurzdauernde Lichtülitze und Lichtlficken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 268–284 (1914).

1804 (1)

D. Troxier, "Über das Verschwinden gegebener Gegenstände innerhalb unseres Gesichtskreises," Ophthalmol. Bibliothek (Jena) 2, 1–53 (1804).

Aulhorn, E.

E. Aulhorn, "Über die Beziehung zwischen Lichtsinn und Sehschärfe,"Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 167, 4–74 (1964).

Baker, H. D.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).

Baumgartner, G.

G. Baumgartner, F. Eichin, and A. Schulz, "Unterschiede neuronaler Aktivierung im zentralen visuellen System bei langdauernder Verdunklung und Belichtung des Auges," Pfluegers Arch.279, R4 (A) (1964).

Blackwell, H. R.

Bohn, H.

B. A. Brooks and H. Bohn, "Activity in the optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat during the first moments of light adaptation in the scotopic region," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 213–228 (1970).

Bornschein, H.

H. Bornschein, "Der Einfluss zeitlicher Reizgradienten auf die Impulsaktivität retinaler Neurone der Katze," Pflugers Arch. 275, 478–494 (1962).

H. Bornschein, "Die subjektive Unterscheidung zeitlicher Gradienten optischer Reize," Vision Res. 2, 463–467 (1962).

Bouman, M. A.

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pola, and L. Matin, "Visual persistence: effects of flash luminance, duration and energy," Vision Res. 14, 295–303 (1974).

Brooks, B. A.

B. A. Brooks and H. Bohn, "Activity in the optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat during the first moments of light adaptation in the scotopic region," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 213–228 (1970).

Brown, K. T.

D. N. Whitten qnd K. T. Brown, "The time courses of late receptor potentials from monkey cones and rods," Vision Res. 13, 107–135 (1973).

D. N. Whitten and K. T. Brown, "Slowed decay of the monkey's cone receptor potential by intense stimuli, and protection from this effect by tight adaptation," Vision Res. 13, 1659–1667 (1973).

Cibis, P. A.

P. A. Cibis, "Lokaladaptation," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 193–202 (1964).

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, "A study of Troxler's effect," Opt. Acta 7, 219–236 (1960).

Cohn, T. E.

T. E. Cohn, "A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold," Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).

De Vries, H.

H. De Vries, "The quantum character of light and its bearing upon threshold of vision, the differential sensitivity and visual acuity of the eye," Physica (Utrecht) 10, 553–564 (1943).

Donovan, W. J.

H. D. Baker and W. J. Donovan, "Early dark adaptation, the receptor potential and lateral effects on the retina," Vision Res. 22, 645–651 (1982).

Doran, M. D.

Ehrenstein, W. H.

W. H. Ehrenstein and L. Spillmann, "Temporal thresholds forincrement and decrement changes in luminance," Pfluegers Arch. 389, R35(A) (1981).

Eichin, F.

G. Baumgartner, F. Eichin, and A. Schulz, "Unterschiede neuronaler Aktivierung im zentralen visuellen System bei langdauernder Verdunklung und Belichtung des Auges," Pfluegers Arch.279, R4 (A) (1964).

Fischer, B.

J. Kruger and B. Fischer, "Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retina] and geniculate neurons of the cat," Biol. Cybern. 20, 223–236 (1975).

B. Fischer, D. Krause, and H. U. May, "Schwellenerregung, zeitliche Summation und Impulsreaktionsfunktion in der Retina der Katze: Temporale rezeptive Felder retinaler Ganglienzellen," Exp. Brain Res. 15, 212–224 (1972).

Fuld, K.

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, "Increment threshold detection latency in the rod and cone systems," Vision Res. 20, 981–994 (1980).

Gildemeister, M.

M. Gildemeister, "Über die Wahrnehmbarkeit von Lichtlücken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 256–267 (1914).

Grfisser, O.-J.

O.-J. Grfisser and C. Reidemeister, "Flimmerlichtuntersuchungen an der Katzenretina. II. Off-Neurone," Z. Biol. 111, 254–270 (1959).

Haberich, F. J.

B. Lingelbach and F. J. Haberich, "Differential thresholds of luminance under fixed and sudden change of adaptation," Pfluegers Arch. 362, R45 (A) (1976).

Hagins, W. A.

R. D. Penn and W. A. Hagins, "Kinetics of photocurrent of retinal rods," Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).

Herrick, R. M.

R. M. Herrick, "Foveal luminance discrimination as a function of the duration of the decrement or increment in luminance," J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437–443 (1956).

Ikeda, M.

Jones, R. W.

Jung, R.

R. Jung, "Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell- und Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung," Ber. Dtsch. Ophthal. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).

R. Jung, "Visual perception and neurophysiology," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Jung, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), Vol. VII/3A, pp. 1–152.

Koenderink, J. J.

Korn, A.

H. Scheich and A. Korn, "Timing properties and temporal summation in the retina," Pfluegers Arch. 327, 16–36 (1971).

Krause, D.

B. Fischer, D. Krause, and H. U. May, "Schwellenerregung, zeitliche Summation und Impulsreaktionsfunktion in der Retina der Katze: Temporale rezeptive Felder retinaler Ganglienzellen," Exp. Brain Res. 15, 212–224 (1972).

Kruger, J.

J. Kruger and B. Fischer, "Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retina] and geniculate neurons of the cat," Biol. Cybern. 20, 223–236 (1975).

Lazet, A.

Lillywhite, P. G.

P. G. Lillywhite, "Multiplicative intrinsic noise and the limits to visual performance," Vision Res. 21, 291–296 (1981).

Lingelbach, B.

B. Lingelbach and F. J. Haberich, "Differential thresholds of luminance under fixed and sudden change of adaptation," Pfluegers Arch. 362, R45 (A) (1976).

Lit, A.

W. M. Vicars and A. Lit, "Reaction time to incremental and decremental target luminance changes at various photopic background levels," Vision Res. 15, 261–265 (1975).

Long, G. M.

B. Sakitt and G. M. Long, "Cones determine subjective offset of a stimulus but rods determine total persistence," Vision Res. 19, 1439–1441 (1979).

Matin, L.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pola, and L. Matin, "Visual persistence: effects of flash luminance, duration and energy," Vision Res. 14, 295–303 (1974).

May, H. U.

B. Fischer, D. Krause, and H. U. May, "Schwellenerregung, zeitliche Summation und Impulsreaktionsfunktion in der Retina der Katze: Temporale rezeptive Felder retinaler Ganglienzellen," Exp. Brain Res. 15, 212–224 (1972).

Miller, K. E.

Neumeyer, C.

C. Neumeyer and L. Spillmann, "Fading of steadily fixated large test fields in extrafoveal vision," Pfluegers Arch. 368, R40 (A) (1977).

Patel, A. S.

Penn, R. D.

R. D. Penn and W. A. Hagins, "Kinetics of photocurrent of retinal rods," Biophys. J. 12, 1073–1094 (1972).

Phillips, W. A.

W. A. Phillips and W. Singer, "The function and interaction of 'on' and 'off transients in vision. I: Psychophysics," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 493–506 (1974).

W. Singer and W. A. Phillips, "Function and interaction of 'on' and and 'off' transients in vision. II: Neurophysiology," Exp. Brain Res. 19, 507–521 (1974).

Pola, J.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pola, and L. Matin, "Visual persistence: effects of flash luminance, duration and energy," Vision Res. 14, 295–303 (1974).

Rashbass, C.

C. Rashbass, "The visibility of transient changes of luminance," J. Physiol. (London) 210, 165–186 (1970).

Reidemeister, C.

O.-J. Grfisser and C. Reidemeister, "Flimmerlichtuntersuchungen an der Katzenretina. II. Off-Neurone," Z. Biol. 111, 254–270 (1959).

C. Reidemeister, "Reaktionen einzelner Neurone der Katzenretina bei Flimmerlicht mit verschiedenem Hell-Dunkelverhaltnis," Pfluegers Arch. 268, 51–52 (1958).

Ross, R. T.

R. T. Ross, "The fusion frequency in different areas of the visual field: IV. Fusion frequency as a function of the light–dark ratio," J. Gen. Psychol. 29, 129–144 (1943).

Roufs, J. A. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, "Dynamic properties of vision—IV: Thresholdsof decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion," Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).

Rutenburg, D.

D. Rutenburg, "Über die Netzhautreizung durch kurzdauernde Lichtülitze und Lichtlficken," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 268–284 (1914).

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt and G. M. Long, "Cones determine subjective offset of a stimulus but rods determine total persistence," Vision Res. 19, 1439–1441 (1979).

Scheich, H.

H. Scheich and A. Korn, "Timing properties and temporal summation in the retina," Pfluegers Arch. 327, 16–36 (1971).

Schulz, A.

G. Baumgartner, F. Eichin, and A. Schulz, "Unterschiede neuronaler Aktivierung im zentralen visuellen System bei langdauernder Verdunklung und Belichtung des Auges," Pfluegers Arch.279, R4 (A) (1964).

Short, A. D.

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B. A. Brooks and H. Bohn, "Activity in the optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat during the first moments of light adaptation in the scotopic region," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 213–228 (1970).

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G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

H. Bornschein, "Die subjektive Unterscheidung zeitlicher Gradienten optischer Reize," Vision Res. 2, 463–467 (1962).

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Other (4)

The terms B system and D system were introduced by Jung14,15 to relate the sensation of brighter (B) to the activity of on-center neurons and the sensation of darker (D) to the activity of offcenter neurons.

R. Jung, "Visual perception and neurophysiology," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Jung, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), Vol. VII/3A, pp. 1–152.

Temporal summation is commonly found to hold for durations up to 100 msec in foveal vision but extends to longer durations in scotopic and peripheral vision31,32 as well as for decrement stimuli.1,2

Qualitative remarks suggest that, in the case of the decrement, subjects occasionally responded to the luminance increment at the end of the stimulus rather than to the decrement at the beginning.

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