Abstract

Steady-state accommodation responses were measured in both eyes as a function of vergence angle and direction of lateral gaze. The measurements were made with a binocular laser optometer. Small speckle patterns were used as fusional stimuli in an otherwise dark field. These patterns have the advantage of providing no blur stimulus to accommodation. Convergence accommodation for vergence angles ranging from 0 to 25 deg was measured for lateral- gaze angles of +32, -32, and 0 deg. The average accommodation of the two eyes was linearly related to vergence angle over the observer's accommodative range but was independent of the angle of lateral gaze. The mean convergence accommodation/convergence ratio for three subjects, in diopters per meter-angle, was 0.9. Our measurements of convergence accommodation using laser-speckle targets are in good agreement with previous studies that used small pupils. Accommodation responses for binocular viewing of letters of a Snellen chart were also measured. When luminance was educed, night myopia was observed. No similar effect was found for convergence accommodation. Accommodation to a dim target corresponded closely to the convergence accommodation.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. W. Hofstetter, "The zone of clear single binocular vision: Part I," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 22, 301–333 (1945).
  2. F. C. Donders, On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, London, 1864).
  3. G. A. Fry, "Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation," Optom. Weekly 31, 353–356 (1940).
  4. E. F. Fincham, "The proportion of ciliary muscular force required for accommodation," J. Physiol. 128, 99–112 (1955).
  5. M. W. Morgan, "The ciliary body in accommodation and accommodative convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 219–229 (1954).
  6. E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).
  7. P. R. Kent, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393–406 (1958).
  8. M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).
  9. M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and vergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
  10. M. Alpern, "Vergence movements," in The Eye, 2nd ed., H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. III, Chap. 5, Sec. VI.
  11. R. J. Miller, "Ocular vergence-induced accommodation and its relation to dark focus," Percept. Psychophys. 28, 125–132 (1980).
  12. H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).
  13. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
  14. We measured accommodation responses to speckle targets under monocular viewing conditions as a function of dioptric power of lenses (from +1 to-6 diopters) placed in front of the eye. When accommodation was plotted as a function of lens power, the slope of the line through the data was nearly zero (+0.02).
  15. R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).
  16. G. Westheimer, "Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).
  17. D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).
  18. E. F. Fincham, "Accommodation and convergence in the absence of retinal images," Vision. Res. 1, 425–440 (1962).
  19. W. N. Charman, "On the position of the plane of stationarity in laser refraction," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832–838 (1974).
  20. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
  21. J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975), pp. 9–75.
  22. This allows for the wavelength of the red He–Ne laser light, which is 632.8 nm.
  23. If IPD represents the interpupillary distance in meters, the CA/C ratio in diopters/meter-angle is given by IPD × 57.3 × CA/C/ diopters/deg. However, this is only an approximate equivalence. For large version and vergence angles, dioptric distance in meter-angles is no longer closely proportional to vergence. For asymmetric convergence there is ambiguity because of the differences in the right- and left-eye distances from the fixation point.
  24. F. W. Campbell, "Twilight myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42,925–926 (1953).
  25. D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).
  26. C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).
  27. G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).
  28. It should also be pointed out that if all subjects have lines with equal (and perhaps steep) slopes but different intercepts, the averaged data produce a line of smaller slope.

1980 (2)

R. J. Miller, "Ocular vergence-induced accommodation and its relation to dark focus," Percept. Psychophys. 28, 125–132 (1980).

D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).

1975 (2)

1974 (1)

W. N. Charman, "On the position of the plane of stationarity in laser refraction," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832–838 (1974).

1973 (1)

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).

1972 (1)

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).

1968 (1)

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and vergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).

1965 (1)

1962 (2)

E. F. Fincham, "Accommodation and convergence in the absence of retinal images," Vision. Res. 1, 425–440 (1962).

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

1961 (1)

C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).

1959 (1)

M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).

1958 (1)

P. R. Kent, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393–406 (1958).

1957 (2)

E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).

G. Westheimer, "Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).

1955 (1)

E. F. Fincham, "The proportion of ciliary muscular force required for accommodation," J. Physiol. 128, 99–112 (1955).

1954 (1)

M. W. Morgan, "The ciliary body in accommodation and accommodative convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 219–229 (1954).

1953 (1)

F. W. Campbell, "Twilight myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42,925–926 (1953).

1945 (1)

H. W. Hofstetter, "The zone of clear single binocular vision: Part I," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 22, 301–333 (1945).

1940 (1)

G. A. Fry, "Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation," Optom. Weekly 31, 353–356 (1940).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, "Vergence movements," in The Eye, 2nd ed., H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. III, Chap. 5, Sec. VI.

Balsam, M. H.

M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).

Blair, S. M.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).

Breinen, G. M.

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

Campbell, F. W.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, "On the position of the plane of stationarity in laser refraction," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832–838 (1974).

Chin, N. B.

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

Donders, F. C.

F. C. Donders, On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, London, 1864).

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, "Accommodation and convergence in the absence of retinal images," Vision. Res. 1, 425–440 (1962).

E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).

E. F. Fincham, "The proportion of ciliary muscular force required for accommodation," J. Physiol. 128, 99–112 (1955).

Fry, G. A.

M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).

G. A. Fry, "Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation," Optom. Weekly 31, 353–356 (1940).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975), pp. 9–75.

Green, D. G.

Hennessy, R. T.

R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).

Hofstetter, H. W.

H. W. Hofstetter, "The zone of clear single binocular vision: Part I," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 22, 301–333 (1945).

Kent, P. R.

P. R. Kent, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393–406 (1958).

Leibowitz, H. W.

D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).

Miller, R. J.

R. J. Miller, "Ocular vergence-induced accommodation and its relation to dark focus," Percept. Psychophys. 28, 125–132 (1980).

Morgan, M. W.

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and vergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).

M. W. Morgan, "The ciliary body in accommodation and accommodative convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 219–229 (1954).

Owens, D. A.

D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

Rashbass, C.

C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).

Ripps, H.

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

Siegel, I. M.

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

Walton, J.

E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).

C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).

G. Westheimer, "Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).

Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. (1)

D. A. Owens and H. W. Leibowitz, "Accommodation, convergence, and distance perception in low illuminations," Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 57, 540–550 (1980).

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (5)

H. W. Hofstetter, "The zone of clear single binocular vision: Part I," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 22, 301–333 (1945).

P. R. Kent, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 35, 393–406 (1958).

M. H. Balsam and G. A. Fry, "Convergence accommodation," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 36, 567–575 (1959).

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and vergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).

M. W. Morgan, "The ciliary body in accommodation and accommodative convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 219–229 (1954).

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, "On the position of the plane of stationarity in laser refraction," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832–838 (1974).

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. (1)

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. Ripps, N. B. Chin, I. M. Siegel, and G. M. Breinen, "Effect of pupil size on accommodation, convergence and the AC/A ratio," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 127–135 (1962).

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "The parasympathetic pathways to internal eye muscles," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 193–197 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (3)

C. Rashbass and G. Westheimer, "Independence of conjugate and disjunctive eye movements," J. Physiol. 159, 361–364 (1961).

E. F. Fincham and J. Walton, "The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence," J. Physiol. 137, 488–508 (1957).

E. F. Fincham, "The proportion of ciliary muscular force required for accommodation," J. Physiol. 128, 99–112 (1955).

Optom. Weekly (1)

G. A. Fry, "Skiametric measurement of convergent accommodation," Optom. Weekly 31, 353–356 (1940).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

R. J. Miller, "Ocular vergence-induced accommodation and its relation to dark focus," Percept. Psychophys. 28, 125–132 (1980).

Vision. Res. (1)

E. F. Fincham, "Accommodation and convergence in the absence of retinal images," Vision. Res. 1, 425–440 (1962).

Other (7)

We measured accommodation responses to speckle targets under monocular viewing conditions as a function of dioptric power of lenses (from +1 to-6 diopters) placed in front of the eye. When accommodation was plotted as a function of lens power, the slope of the line through the data was nearly zero (+0.02).

It should also be pointed out that if all subjects have lines with equal (and perhaps steep) slopes but different intercepts, the averaged data produce a line of smaller slope.

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975), pp. 9–75.

This allows for the wavelength of the red He–Ne laser light, which is 632.8 nm.

If IPD represents the interpupillary distance in meters, the CA/C ratio in diopters/meter-angle is given by IPD × 57.3 × CA/C/ diopters/deg. However, this is only an approximate equivalence. For large version and vergence angles, dioptric distance in meter-angles is no longer closely proportional to vergence. For asymmetric convergence there is ambiguity because of the differences in the right- and left-eye distances from the fixation point.

F. C. Donders, On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, London, 1864).

M. Alpern, "Vergence movements," in The Eye, 2nd ed., H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. III, Chap. 5, Sec. VI.

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