Abstract

Polarization-mode properties of elliptical-core fibers and stress-applied single polarization fibers are clarified theoretically and experimentally. Normalized frequency dependence of modal birefringence and polarization-mode dispersion is measured, and the results are found to be in good agreement with the calculated results. It is revealed that the stress distribution over core and cladding has a strong influence on the polarization properties for the single-mode fibers examined here.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).
  2. Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919–934 (1981).
  3. T. Okoshi, "Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1138–1149 (1982).
  4. V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).
  5. T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).
  6. T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).
  7. L. Jeunhomme and M. Monerie, "Polarization-maintaining sin-gle-mode fiber cable design," Electron. Lett. 16, 921–922 (1980).
  8. K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).
  9. K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).
  10. K. Okamoto, T. Edahiro, and N. Shibata, "Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers," Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).
  11. Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).
  12. E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).
  13. N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).
  14. N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).
  15. N. K. Sinha, "Normalized dispersion of birefringence of quartz and stress-optical coefficient of fused silica and plate glass, "Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 67–77 (1978).
  16. R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).
  17. N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).
  18. K. Mochizuki, Y. Namihira, and Y. Ejiri, "Birefringence variation with temperature in elliptically cladded single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 21, 4223–4228 (1982).
  19. N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

1982

T. Okoshi, "Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1138–1149 (1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Edahiro, and N. Shibata, "Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers," Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).

K. Mochizuki, Y. Namihira, and Y. Ejiri, "Birefringence variation with temperature in elliptically cladded single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 21, 4223–4228 (1982).

1981

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).

T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919–934 (1981).

1980

L. Jeunhomme and M. Monerie, "Polarization-maintaining sin-gle-mode fiber cable design," Electron. Lett. 16, 921–922 (1980).

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

1979

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).

1978

N. K. Sinha, "Normalized dispersion of birefringence of quartz and stress-optical coefficient of fused silica and plate glass, "Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 67–77 (1978).

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).

1955

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).

Andrews, R. D.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).

Cozens, J. R.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).

Edahiro, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Edahiro, and N. Shibata, "Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers," Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

Ejiri, Y.

Gurnee, E. F.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).

Hosaka, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

Jeunhomme, L.

L. Jeunhomme and M. Monerie, "Polarization-maintaining sin-gle-mode fiber cable design," Electron. Lett. 16, 921–922 (1980).

Jinguji, K.

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

Kaiser, P.

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).

Katsuyama, T.

T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).

Kawachi, M.

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

Kimura, T.

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919–934 (1981).

Matsuhara, H.

T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).

Miya, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

Mochizuki, K.

Monerie, M.

L. Jeunhomme and M. Monerie, "Polarization-maintaining sin-gle-mode fiber cable design," Electron. Lett. 16, 921–922 (1980).

Morris, D. G.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).

Namihira, Y.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, T. Edahiro, and N. Shibata, "Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers," Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, "Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1138–1149 (1982).

Patterson, L. T.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).

Sakai, J.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

Sasaki, Y.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

Seikai, S.

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

Shibata, N.

K. Okamoto, T. Edahiro, and N. Shibata, "Polarization properties of single-polarization fibers," Opt. Lett. 7, 569–571 (1982).

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

Sinha, N. K.

N. K. Sinha, "Normalized dispersion of birefringence of quartz and stress-optical coefficient of fused silica and plate glass, "Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 67–77 (1978).

Suganuma, T.

T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).

Tateda, M.

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

Tsuchiya, H.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

Uchida, N.

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919–934 (1981).

Yoshizawa, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, and P. Kaiser, "Single polarization optical fibers: exposed cladding technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814–816, (1978).

Electron. Lett.

T. Katsuyama, H. Matsuhara, and T. Suganuma, "Low-loss single-polarization fibers," Electron. Lett. 17, 473–474 (1981).

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, "Low-loss single polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence," Electron. Lett. 17, 530–531 (1981).

L. Jeunhomme and M. Monerie, "Polarization-maintaining sin-gle-mode fiber cable design," Electron. Lett. 16, 921–922 (1980).

N. Shibata, N. Uchida, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Normalized frequency dependence of polarization mode dispersion due to thermal-stress-induced birefringence in an elliptical core single- mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 18, 563–564 (1982).

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, "Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores," Electron. Lett. 15, 380–382 (1979).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267–1271 (1980).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and T. Edahiro, "Stress analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123–2129 (1981).

K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and Y. Sasaki, "Linearly single polarization fibers with zero polarization mode dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 496–503 (1982).

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919–934 (1981).

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, and S. Seikai, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement in elliptical core single-mode fibers by a spatial technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 53–58 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

T. Okoshi, "Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1138–1149 (1982).

J. Appl. Phys.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, "Apparatus for making simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements on polymers," J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106–1110 (1955).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, and T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical-fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267–1273 (1979).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Glasses

N. K. Sinha, "Normalized dispersion of birefringence of quartz and stress-optical coefficient of fused silica and plate glass, "Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 67–77 (1978).

Other

Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, T. Hosaka, and N. Shibata, "Polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers," in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

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