Abstract

Detection thresholds of sinusoidal gratings in the simultaneous presence of high-contrast peripheral masking stimuli partially overlapping the test gratings were determined as a function of the separation between the center of the test grating and the peripheral stimulus by a two-alternative forced-choice method. The results showed that the threshold-elevating effect of simultaneously present peripheral masking stimuli depends on how much of the test grating is left unexposed. An additional experiment, in which the detection thresholds in the absence of the peripheral stimulus were determined as a function of the number of cycles of the test grating, enabled us to show that the threshold-elevating effect is somewhat higher than the effect of simply cutting the test grating down in size. The threshold-elevating effects caused by high-contrast peripheral masking stimuli can be explained in terms of a lateral inhibition and a probability summation across space, taking into account the nonuniform sensitivity acro ss the visual field.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Fiorentini, "Mach band phenomena," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 188–201.
  2. J. P. Frisby and J. L. Clatworthy, "Illusory contours: curious cases of simultaneous brightness contrast?" Perception 4, 349–357 (1975).
  3. G. von Bekesy, "Mach-and Hering-type lateral inhibition in vision," Vision Res. 8, 1483–1499 (1968).
  4. E. Lavin and A. Costall, "Detection thresholds of the Hermann grid illusion," Vision Res. 18, 1061–1062 (1978).
  5. E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 146–169.
  6. M. K. Jory and R. H. Day, "The relationship between brightness contrast and illusory contours," Perception 8, 3–9 (1979).
  7. M. A. Georgeson, "Spatial frequency selectivity of a visual tilt illusion," Nature (London) 245, 43–45 (1973).
  8. D. M. MacKay, "Lateral interaction between neural channels sensitive to texture density," Nature (London) 245, 159–161 (1973).
  9. S. Klein, C. F. Stromeyer, and L. Ganz, "The simultaneous spatial frequency shift: a dissociation between the detection and perception of gratings," Vision Res. 14, 1421–1432 (1974).
  10. S. Novak and G. Sperling, "Visual thresholds near a continuously visible or a briefly presented light—dark boundary," Opt. Acta 10, 187–191 (1963).
  11. J. P. Thomas, "Threshold measurements of Mach bands," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 521–524 (1965).
  12. G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in the humian retina during scotopic vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 181, 881–894 (1965).
  13. G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 190, 139–154 (1967).
  14. A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination" Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 21, 338–356 (1966).
  15. A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination. II: Effects of a just-perceptible illumination step," Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 22, 207–217 (1967).
  16. D. Y. Teller, "Increment thresholds on black bars," Vision Res. 8, 713–718 (1968).
  17. A. Vassilev, "Contrast sensitivity near borders: significance of test stimulus form, size and duration," Vision Res. 13, 719–730 (1973).
  18. K. N. Wildman, "Visual sensitivity at an edge," Vision Res. 14, 749–755 (1974).
  19. M. Tachibana, "Threshold changes near the light-dark border: a comparison of real and equivalent background lights," Vision Res. 17, 117–122 (1977).
  20. A. Remole, "Relation between border enhancement extent and retinal image blur," Vision Res. 14, 989–995 (1974).
  21. A. Remole, "Brightness enhancement versus darkness enhancement at a border," Vision Res. 17, 1095–1100 (1977).
  22. B. G. Breitmeyer and A. Valberg, "Local foveal inhibitory effects of global peripheral excitation," Science 203, 463–465 (1979).
  23. A. Valberg and B. G. Breitmeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillating peripheral luminance gratings: a test of hypotheses," Vision Res. 20, 789–798 (1980).
  24. B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).
  25. G. Hauske, "Superposition of edges and gratings: interaction between central and peripheral regions," Vision Res. 21, 373–384 (1981).
  26. J. O. Limb and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Spatiotemporal characteristics of thresholds adjacent to a luminance edge," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1209–1219 (1981).
  27. T. Mitsuboshi, M. Mitsuboshi, and S. Torii, "The decrease in the threshold on the dark side of the luminance edge in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 22, 1329–1334 (1982).
  28. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. Lond. 197, 551–566 (1968).
  29. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal inmages," J. Physiol. Lond. 203, 237–260 (1969).
  30. N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
  31. L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 39–66.
  32. R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 31, 309–341 (1980).
  33. G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Contrast masking in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1458–1471 (1980).
  34. G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
  35. J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).
  36. J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).
  37. R. L. Savoy and J. J. MacCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).
  38. J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).
  39. J. J. MacCann and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Effects of average-luminance surrounds on the visibility of sine-wave gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 212–219 (1980).
  40. J. G. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field," Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).
  41. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  42. R. F. Quick, Jr., "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
  43. N. Graham, "Visual detection of aperiodic spatial stimuli by probability summation among narrowband channels," Vision Res. 17, 637–652 (1977).
  44. A. B. Watson, "Probability summation over time," Vision Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
  45. J. Nachmias, "On the psychometric function for contrast detection," Vision Res. 21, 215–223 (1981).

1982 (1)

T. Mitsuboshi, M. Mitsuboshi, and S. Torii, "The decrease in the threshold on the dark side of the luminance edge in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 22, 1329–1334 (1982).

1981 (4)

G. Hauske, "Superposition of edges and gratings: interaction between central and peripheral regions," Vision Res. 21, 373–384 (1981).

J. O. Limb and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Spatiotemporal characteristics of thresholds adjacent to a luminance edge," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1209–1219 (1981).

J. G. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field," Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).

J. Nachmias, "On the psychometric function for contrast detection," Vision Res. 21, 215–223 (1981).

1980 (5)

J. J. MacCann and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Effects of average-luminance surrounds on the visibility of sine-wave gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 212–219 (1980).

A. Valberg and B. G. Breitmeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillating peripheral luminance gratings: a test of hypotheses," Vision Res. 20, 789–798 (1980).

B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 31, 309–341 (1980).

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Contrast masking in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1458–1471 (1980).

1979 (3)

B. G. Breitmeyer and A. Valberg, "Local foveal inhibitory effects of global peripheral excitation," Science 203, 463–465 (1979).

M. K. Jory and R. H. Day, "The relationship between brightness contrast and illusory contours," Perception 8, 3–9 (1979).

A. B. Watson, "Probability summation over time," Vision Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).

1978 (3)

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

E. Lavin and A. Costall, "Detection thresholds of the Hermann grid illusion," Vision Res. 18, 1061–1062 (1978).

L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 39–66.

1977 (3)

M. Tachibana, "Threshold changes near the light-dark border: a comparison of real and equivalent background lights," Vision Res. 17, 117–122 (1977).

A. Remole, "Brightness enhancement versus darkness enhancement at a border," Vision Res. 17, 1095–1100 (1977).

N. Graham, "Visual detection of aperiodic spatial stimuli by probability summation among narrowband channels," Vision Res. 17, 637–652 (1977).

1975 (2)

R. L. Savoy and J. J. MacCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).

J. P. Frisby and J. L. Clatworthy, "Illusory contours: curious cases of simultaneous brightness contrast?" Perception 4, 349–357 (1975).

1974 (6)

S. Klein, C. F. Stromeyer, and L. Ganz, "The simultaneous spatial frequency shift: a dissociation between the detection and perception of gratings," Vision Res. 14, 1421–1432 (1974).

K. N. Wildman, "Visual sensitivity at an edge," Vision Res. 14, 749–755 (1974).

A. Remole, "Relation between border enhancement extent and retinal image blur," Vision Res. 14, 989–995 (1974).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

R. F. Quick, Jr., "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).

1973 (3)

M. A. Georgeson, "Spatial frequency selectivity of a visual tilt illusion," Nature (London) 245, 43–45 (1973).

D. M. MacKay, "Lateral interaction between neural channels sensitive to texture density," Nature (London) 245, 159–161 (1973).

A. Vassilev, "Contrast sensitivity near borders: significance of test stimulus form, size and duration," Vision Res. 13, 719–730 (1973).

1972 (2)

A. Fiorentini, "Mach band phenomena," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 188–201.

E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 146–169.

1971 (2)

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

1969 (1)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal inmages," J. Physiol. Lond. 203, 237–260 (1969).

1968 (3)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. Lond. 197, 551–566 (1968).

G. von Bekesy, "Mach-and Hering-type lateral inhibition in vision," Vision Res. 8, 1483–1499 (1968).

D. Y. Teller, "Increment thresholds on black bars," Vision Res. 8, 713–718 (1968).

1967 (2)

A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination. II: Effects of a just-perceptible illumination step," Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 22, 207–217 (1967).

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 190, 139–154 (1967).

1966 (1)

A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination" Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 21, 338–356 (1966).

1965 (3)

J. P. Thomas, "Threshold measurements of Mach bands," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 521–524 (1965).

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in the humian retina during scotopic vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 181, 881–894 (1965).

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).

1963 (1)

S. Novak and G. Sperling, "Visual thresholds near a continuously visible or a briefly presented light—dark boundary," Opt. Acta 10, 187–191 (1963).

Bilsen, F. A.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal inmages," J. Physiol. Lond. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Breitmeyer, B. G.

A. Valberg and B. G. Breitmeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillating peripheral luminance gratings: a test of hypotheses," Vision Res. 20, 789–798 (1980).

B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).

B. G. Breitmeyer and A. Valberg, "Local foveal inhibitory effects of global peripheral excitation," Science 203, 463–465 (1979).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal inmages," J. Physiol. Lond. 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. Lond. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Clatworthy, J. L.

J. P. Frisby and J. L. Clatworthy, "Illusory contours: curious cases of simultaneous brightness contrast?" Perception 4, 349–357 (1975).

Costall, A.

E. Lavin and A. Costall, "Detection thresholds of the Hermann grid illusion," Vision Res. 18, 1061–1062 (1978).

Day, R. H.

M. K. Jory and R. H. Day, "The relationship between brightness contrast and illusory contours," Perception 8, 3–9 (1979).

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 31, 309–341 (1980).

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 31, 309–341 (1980).

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, "Mach band phenomena," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 188–201.

A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination. II: Effects of a just-perceptible illumination step," Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 22, 207–217 (1967).

A. Fiorentini and M. T. Zoli, "Detection of a target superimposed to a step pattern of illumination" Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 21, 338–356 (1966).

Foley, J. M.

Frisby, J. P.

J. P. Frisby and J. L. Clatworthy, "Illusory contours: curious cases of simultaneous brightness contrast?" Perception 4, 349–357 (1975).

Ganz, L.

S. Klein, C. F. Stromeyer, and L. Ganz, "The simultaneous spatial frequency shift: a dissociation between the detection and perception of gratings," Vision Res. 14, 1421–1432 (1974).

Georgeson, M. A.

M. A. Georgeson, "Spatial frequency selectivity of a visual tilt illusion," Nature (London) 245, 43–45 (1973).

Graham, N.

J. G. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field," Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).

N. Graham, "Visual detection of aperiodic spatial stimuli by probability summation among narrowband channels," Vision Res. 17, 637–652 (1977).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

Hall, Jr., J. A.

J. J. MacCann and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Effects of average-luminance surrounds on the visibility of sine-wave gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 212–219 (1980).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Hauske, G.

G. Hauske, "Superposition of edges and gratings: interaction between central and peripheral regions," Vision Res. 21, 373–384 (1981).

Heinemann, E. G.

E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 146–169.

Hoekstra, J.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Jory, M. K.

M. K. Jory and R. H. Day, "The relationship between brightness contrast and illusory contours," Perception 8, 3–9 (1979).

Klein, S.

S. Klein, C. F. Stromeyer, and L. Ganz, "The simultaneous spatial frequency shift: a dissociation between the detection and perception of gratings," Vision Res. 14, 1421–1432 (1974).

Kurtenbach, W.

B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).

Lavin, E.

E. Lavin and A. Costall, "Detection thresholds of the Hermann grid illusion," Vision Res. 18, 1061–1062 (1978).

Legge, G. E.

Levitt, H.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).

Limb, J. O.

MacCann, J. J.

J. J. MacCann and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Effects of average-luminance surrounds on the visibility of sine-wave gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 212–219 (1980).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

R. L. Savoy and J. J. MacCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

MacKay, D. M.

D. M. MacKay, "Lateral interaction between neural channels sensitive to texture density," Nature (London) 245, 159–161 (1973).

Maffei, L.

L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 39–66.

Mitsuboshi, M.

T. Mitsuboshi, M. Mitsuboshi, and S. Torii, "The decrease in the threshold on the dark side of the luminance edge in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 22, 1329–1334 (1982).

Mitsuboshi, T.

T. Mitsuboshi, M. Mitsuboshi, and S. Torii, "The decrease in the threshold on the dark side of the luminance edge in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 22, 1329–1334 (1982).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, "On the psychometric function for contrast detection," Vision Res. 21, 215–223 (1981).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

Neumeyer, C.

B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).

Novak, S.

S. Novak and G. Sperling, "Visual thresholds near a continuously visible or a briefly presented light—dark boundary," Opt. Acta 10, 187–191 (1963).

Quick, Jr., R. F.

R. F. Quick, Jr., "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).

Remole, A.

A. Remole, "Brightness enhancement versus darkness enhancement at a border," Vision Res. 17, 1095–1100 (1977).

A. Remole, "Relation between border enhancement extent and retinal image blur," Vision Res. 14, 989–995 (1974).

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field," Vision Res. 21, 409–418 (1981).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. Lond. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Sachs, M. B.

Savoy, R. L.

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

R. L. Savoy and J. J. MacCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Scarpetti, J. J.

J. J. MacCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Sperling, G.

S. Novak and G. Sperling, "Visual thresholds near a continuously visible or a briefly presented light—dark boundary," Opt. Acta 10, 187–191 (1963).

Stromeyer, C. F.

S. Klein, C. F. Stromeyer, and L. Ganz, "The simultaneous spatial frequency shift: a dissociation between the detection and perception of gratings," Vision Res. 14, 1421–1432 (1974).

Tachibana, M.

M. Tachibana, "Threshold changes near the light-dark border: a comparison of real and equivalent background lights," Vision Res. 17, 117–122 (1977).

Teller, D. Y.

D. Y. Teller, "Increment thresholds on black bars," Vision Res. 8, 713–718 (1968).

Thomas, J. P.

Torii, S.

T. Mitsuboshi, M. Mitsuboshi, and S. Torii, "The decrease in the threshold on the dark side of the luminance edge in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 22, 1329–1334 (1982).

Tulunay-Keesey, U.

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg and B. G. Breitmeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillating peripheral luminance gratings: a test of hypotheses," Vision Res. 20, 789–798 (1980).

B. G. Breitmeyer, A. Valberg, W. Kurtenbach, and C. Neumeyer, "The lateral effect of oscillation of peripheral luminance gratings on the foveal increment thresholds," Vision Res. 20, 799–805 (1980).

B. G. Breitmeyer and A. Valberg, "Local foveal inhibitory effects of global peripheral excitation," Science 203, 463–465 (1979).

van den Brink, G.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

van der Goot, D. P. J.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Vassilev, A.

A. Vassilev, "Contrast sensitivity near borders: significance of test stimulus form, size and duration," Vision Res. 13, 719–730 (1973).

von Bekesy, G.

G. von Bekesy, "Mach-and Hering-type lateral inhibition in vision," Vision Res. 8, 1483–1499 (1968).

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, "Probability summation over time," Vision Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 190, 139–154 (1967).

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in the humian retina during scotopic vision," J. Physiol. Lond. 181, 881–894 (1965).

Wetherill, G. B.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).

Wildman, K. N.

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Kybernetik (1)

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Nature (2)

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