Abstract

We studied the detection of coherent motion in stroboscopically moving random-dot patterns for foveal vision and at eccentricities of 6,12, 24, and 48 deg in the temporal visual field. Threshold signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) were determined as a function of velocity for a range of stimulus sizes. It was found that the motion-detection performance is roughly invariant throughout the temporal visual field, provided that the stimuli are scaled according to the cortical magnification factor to obtain equivalent cortical sizes and velocities at all eccentricities. The maximum field velocity compatible with the percept of coherent motion increased about linearly with the width of the square stimuli. At this high-velocity threshold any pixel crossed the field in five to nine equal steps with a constant total crossing time of 50–90 msec, regardless of stimulus size or eccentricity. The lowest SNR values were reached at the optimal or tuning velocity <i>V</i><sub>0</sub>. They approached the amazingly low values of 0.04–0.05 for large stimuli and at all eccentricities. Regardless of stimulus size, the parameter <i>V</i><sub>0</sub> increased about linearly with eccentricity from roughly 1 deg sec<sup>−1</sup> at the fovea to some 8 deg sec<sup>−1</sup> at 48 deg in the temporal visual field.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant features of contrast detection: an explanation in terms of self-similar detector arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 83–87 (1982).
  2. D. Whitteridge and P. M. Daniel, "The representation of the visual field on the calcarine cortex," in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung and H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 222–228.
  3. P. M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The representation of the visual field on the cerebral cortex in monkeys," J. Physiol. London 159, 203–221 (1961).
  4. E. T. Rolls and A. Cowey, "Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys," Exp. Brain Res. 10, 298–310 (1970).
  5. A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–459 (1974).
  6. N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).
  7. J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. I–IV," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).
  8. V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
  9. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariances in human visual spatiotemporal contrast detection," presented at the ICO-11 Conference, Madrid, Spain, 1978.
  10. V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
  11. C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
  12. G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).
  13. B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
  14. S. M. Zeki, "Functional specialisation in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey," Nature 274, 423–428 (1978).
  15. P. Lennie, "Neuroanatomy of visual acuity," Nature 266, 496 (1977).
  16. W. R. Uttal, A Taxonomy of Visual Processes (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1981).
  17. Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1967); see especially p. 180.
  18. F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, "The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns," Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).
  19. P. D. Tynan and R. Sekuler, "Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity," Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).
  20. B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1971).
  21. A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Temporal properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 179–188 (1982).
  22. A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 189–195 (1982).
  23. A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Visibility of movement gradients," Biol. Cybern. 44, 167–175 (1982).
  24. A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "The structure of the human motion detection system." IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (to be published).
  25. A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatiotemporal integration in the detection of coherent motion," Vision Res. (to be published).
  26. F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).
  27. T. Wertheim, "Über die indirekte Sehschife," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 7, 172–189 (1894).
  28. A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).
  29. J. S. Lappin and H. H. Bell, "The detection of coherence in moving random-dot patterns," Vision Res. 16, 161–168 (1976).
  30. W. Reichardt, "Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation of sensory information by the central nervous system," in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 303–317.
  31. W. Reichardt and T. Poggio, "Visual control of orientation behavior in the fly," Q. Rev. Biophys. 9, 311–348 (1976).
  32. J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
  33. C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "The basis of area and dot number effects in random dot motion perception," Vision Res. 22, 1252–1259 (1982).
  34. D. Finlay, "Motion perception in the peripheral visual field," Percept. 11, 457–462 (1982).
  35. J. H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen, "Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation," J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).

1983 (2)

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

J. H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen, "Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation," J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).

1982 (9)

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "The basis of area and dot number effects in random dot motion perception," Vision Res. 22, 1252–1259 (1982).

D. Finlay, "Motion perception in the peripheral visual field," Percept. 11, 457–462 (1982).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant features of contrast detection: an explanation in terms of self-similar detector arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 83–87 (1982).

G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

P. D. Tynan and R. Sekuler, "Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity," Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Temporal properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 179–188 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 189–195 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Visibility of movement gradients," Biol. Cybern. 44, 167–175 (1982).

1981 (3)

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, "The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns," Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).

W. R. Uttal, A Taxonomy of Visual Processes (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1981).

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

1979 (2)

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

1978 (2)

1977 (2)

P. Lennie, "Neuroanatomy of visual acuity," Nature 266, 496 (1977).

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).

1976 (2)

W. Reichardt and T. Poggio, "Visual control of orientation behavior in the fly," Q. Rev. Biophys. 9, 311–348 (1976).

J. S. Lappin and H. H. Bell, "The detection of coherence in moving random-dot patterns," Vision Res. 16, 161–168 (1976).

1974 (1)

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–459 (1974).

1972 (1)

A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).

1970 (1)

E. T. Rolls and A. Cowey, "Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys," Exp. Brain Res. 10, 298–310 (1970).

1967 (1)

Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1967); see especially p. 180.

1961 (3)

W. Reichardt, "Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation of sensory information by the central nervous system," in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 303–317.

D. Whitteridge and P. M. Daniel, "The representation of the visual field on the calcarine cortex," in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung and H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 222–228.

P. M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The representation of the visual field on the cerebral cortex in monkeys," J. Physiol. London 159, 203–221 (1961).

1928 (1)

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

1894 (1)

T. Wertheim, "Über die indirekte Sehschife," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 7, 172–189 (1894).

Acres, L. H.

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Baker, C. L.

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "The basis of area and dot number effects in random dot motion perception," Vision Res. 22, 1252–1259 (1982).

Bauer, R.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

Bell, H. H.

J. S. Lappin and H. H. Bell, "The detection of coherence in moving random-dot patterns," Vision Res. 16, 161–168 (1976).

Bouman, M. A.

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. I–IV," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).

A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).

Braddick, O. J.

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "The basis of area and dot number effects in random dot motion perception," Vision Res. 22, 1252–1259 (1982).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, "The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns," Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).

Cowey, A.

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–459 (1974).

E. T. Rolls and A. Cowey, "Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys," Exp. Brain Res. 10, 298–310 (1970).

Daniel, P. M.

D. Whitteridge and P. M. Daniel, "The representation of the visual field on the calcarine cortex," in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung and H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 222–228.

P. M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The representation of the visual field on the cerebral cortex in monkeys," J. Physiol. London 159, 203–221 (1961).

de Mesquita, A. E. Bueno

den Ouden, R. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Dow, B. M.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

Drasdo, N.

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).

Edens, B. Wighold

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Finlay, D.

D. Finlay, "Motion perception in the peripheral visual field," Percept. 11, 457–462 (1982).

Hines, D. C.

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Julesz, B.

B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1971).

Koenderink, J. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 189–195 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Visibility of movement gradients," Biol. Cybern. 44, 167–175 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Temporal properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 179–188 (1982).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant features of contrast detection: an explanation in terms of self-similar detector arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 83–87 (1982).

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. I–IV," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).

A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatiotemporal integration in the detection of coherent motion," Vision Res. (to be published).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "The structure of the human motion detection system." IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (to be published).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariances in human visual spatiotemporal contrast detection," presented at the ICO-11 Conference, Madrid, Spain, 1978.

Lappin, J. S.

J. S. Lappin and H. H. Bell, "The detection of coherence in moving random-dot patterns," Vision Res. 16, 161–168 (1976).

Laurinen, P.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1967); see especially p. 180.

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, "Neuroanatomy of visual acuity," Nature 266, 496 (1977).

Maffei, L.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, "The influence of spatial frequency and contrast on the perception of moving patterns," Vision Res. 21, 713–721 (1981).

Maunsell, J. H. R.

J. H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen, "Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation," J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).

Näsänen, R.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. Wighold Edens, "Sensitivity to spatio-temporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Poggio, T.

W. Reichardt and T. Poggio, "Visual control of orientation behavior in the fly," Q. Rev. Biophys. 9, 311–348 (1976).

Raaf, J. E.

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Reichardt, W.

W. Reichardt and T. Poggio, "Visual control of orientation behavior in the fly," Q. Rev. Biophys. 9, 311–348 (1976).

W. Reichardt, "Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation of sensory information by the central nervous system," in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosenblith, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 303–317.

Rolls, E. T.

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–459 (1974).

E. T. Rolls and A. Cowey, "Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys," Exp. Brain Res. 10, 298–310 (1970).

Rovamo, J.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

Sekuler, R.

P. D. Tynan and R. Sekuler, "Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity," Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).

Slappendel, S.

Snyder, A. Z.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

Tynan, P. D.

P. D. Tynan and R. Sekuler, "Motion processing in peripheral vision: reaction time and perceived velocity," Vision Res. 22, 61–68 (1982).

Uttal, W. R.

W. R. Uttal, A Taxonomy of Visual Processes (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1981).

van Doorn, A. J.

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant features of contrast detection: an explanation in terms of self-similar detector arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 83–87 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Temporal properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 179–188 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Visibility of movement gradients," Biol. Cybern. 44, 167–175 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 189–195 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatiotemporal integration in the detection of coherent motion," Vision Res. (to be published).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "The structure of the human motion detection system." IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (to be published).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariances in human visual spatiotemporal contrast detection," presented at the ICO-11 Conference, Madrid, Spain, 1978.

van Essen, D. C.

J. H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen, "Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation," J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).

Vautin, R. G.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

Wertheim, T.

T. Wertheim, "Über die indirekte Sehschife," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg 7, 172–189 (1894).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).

Weymouth, F. W.

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Wheeler, M. C.

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Whitteridge, D.

D. Whitteridge and P. M. Daniel, "The representation of the visual field on the calcarine cortex," in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung and H. Kornhuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 222–228.

P. M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The representation of the visual field on the cerebral cortex in monkeys," J. Physiol. London 159, 203–221 (1961).

Zeki, S. M.

S. M. Zeki, "Functional specialisation in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey," Nature 274, 423–428 (1978).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. W. Weymouth, D. C. Hines, L. H. Acres, J. E. Raaf, and M. C. Wheeler, "Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 11, 947–960 (1928).

Biol. Cybern. (1)

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Visibility of movement gradients," Biol. Cybern. 44, 167–175 (1982).

Exp. Brain Res. (7)

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Temporal properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 179–188 (1982).

A. J. van Doorn and J. J. Koenderink, "Spatial properties of the visual detectability of moving spatial white noise," Exp. Brain Res. 45, 189–195 (1982).

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

E. T. Rolls and A. Cowey, "Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys," Exp. Brain Res. 10, 298–310 (1970).

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–459 (1974).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

J. H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen, "Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation," J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1127–1147 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. London (1)

P. M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The representation of the visual field on the cerebral cortex in monkeys," J. Physiol. London 159, 203–221 (1961).

Kybernetik (1)

A. J. van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, and M. A. Bouman, "The influence of the retinal inhomogeneity on the perception of spatial patterns," Kybernetik 10, 223–230 (1972).

Nature (3)

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).

S. M. Zeki, "Functional specialisation in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey," Nature 274, 423–428 (1978).

P. Lennie, "Neuroanatomy of visual acuity," Nature 266, 496 (1977).

Percept. (1)

D. Finlay, "Motion perception in the peripheral visual field," Percept. 11, 457–462 (1982).

Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

W. Reichardt and T. Poggio, "Visual control of orientation behavior in the fly," Q. Rev. Biophys. 9, 311–348 (1976).

Vision Res. (7)

J. S. Lappin and H. H. Bell, "The detection of coherence in moving random-dot patterns," Vision Res. 16, 161–168 (1976).

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "The basis of area and dot number effects in random dot motion perception," Vision Res. 22, 1252–1259 (1982).

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Näsänen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).

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