Abstract

Fender and Julesz [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819 (1967)] found that fused retinally stabilized binocular line targets could be misaligned on the two retinas in the temporalward direction by at least 30 min of arc without loss of fusion and stereopsis and that random-dot stereograms could be misaligned 2 deg before fusion was lost. To test these results in normal vision, we recorded eye motions of four observers while they viewed a random-dot stereogram that subtended about 10 deg. The observers misaligned overlaid vectograph stereo images by moving them apart in a temporalward direction until fusion was lost. They then returned the vectographs to the overlaid position. Throughout this cycle the observers reported at frequent intervals if they could perceive strong or weak depth, loss of depth, or loss of fusion. For some observers the image separation could be increased to 5 deg beyond parallel before fusion was lost. The visual axes diverged to follow the image centers and varied from overconverged to overdiverg d with respect to the image centers while the observers still reported depth and fusion. We call the difference between the image separation and eye vergence the yergence error. If a vergence error persisted for at least 10 sec without loss of the percepts of fusion and depth, we postulate that neutral remapping occurred that compensated for the retinal misalignment. We found that the average maximum neural remapping was 3.0 deg. The neural remapping was greater at loss of fusion than at regaining fusion. This phenomenon corresponds to the hysteresis measured by Fender and Julesz. We obtained an average hysteresis value of 2.6 deg with a maximum value of 4.1 deg. The average value is somewhat larger than the value reported by Fender and Julesz; this might result from our use of larger targets. We recorded many vergence saccades, in both the convergent and divergent directions, associated with scanning the target. Refusion occurred after the images were briefly aligned on the retinas by a pair of vergence sac ades. These saccades were initiated when the vergence error returned to the value that it had when fusion was lost, and the magnitude of the divergent saccade was such that the vergence error was reduced to zero. This may imply retention of the position of correspondence that spanned a period of nearly 1 min between loss and restoration of fusion.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Fender and B. Julesz, "Extension of Panum's fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819–830 (1967).
  2. D. B. Diner, "Hysteresis in binocular fusion," Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1978).
  3. B. Julesz, "Towards the automation of binocular depth perception (Automap-1)," in Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, Munich 1962, C. M. Popplewell, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963).
  4. G. Sperling, "Binocular vision: a physical and a neural theory," Am. J. Psychol. 83, 461–534 (1970).
  5. B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, (hicago, Ill., 1971).
  6. P. Dev, "Segmentation processes in visual perception: a cooperative neural model," COINS Tech. Rep. 74C-5 (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1974).
  7. J. I. Nelson, "Globality and stereoscopic fusion in binocular vision," J. Theor. Biol. 49, 1–88 (1975).
  8. P. Dev, "Perception of depth surfaces in random-dot stereograms: a neural model," Int. J. Man-Machine Stud. 7, 511–528 (1975).
  9. D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," Science 194, 283–287 (1976).
  10. J. E. W. Mayhew and J. P. Frisby, "Rivalrous texture stereograms," Nature (London) 264, 53–56 (1976).
  11. Y. Hirai and K. Fukushima, "An inference upon the neural network finding binocular correspondence," Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J59-D, 133–140 (1976).
  12. N. Sugie and M. Suwa, "A scheme for binocular depth perception suggested by neurophysiological evidence," Biol. Cybernetics 26, 1–15 (1977).
  13. D. Marr and T. Poggio, "A theory of human stereo vision," Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 451 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).
  14. D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Theory of human stereopsis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1400 (A) (1977).
  15. D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).
  16. A. Trehub, "Neuronal models for stereoscopic vision," J. Theor. Biol. 71, 479–486 (1978).
  17. W. E. L. Grimson, From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Visual System (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1981).
  18. G. J. St-Cyr and D. H. Fender, "The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation," Vision Res. 9, 245 (1969).
  19. Three of our observers seldom experienced fusion without the percept of depth. The remaining observer did have this percept, but we did not record the differential thresholds for loss of the depth percept and loss of fusion.
  20. L. A. Riggs and E. W. Niehl, "Eye movements recorded during convergence and divergence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 913–920 (1960).
  21. E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, "The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control—I. Periodic target steps," Vision Res. 19, 619–632 (1979).
  22. M. H. Clark and H. D. Crane, "Dynamic interactions in binocular vision," in Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions, J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, and R. A. Montey, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978).
  23. P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Extended Panum's area for dynamic random dot stereograms," presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, April 30—May 5, 1978. For some problems of Panum's area see also P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Modifications of the classical notion of Panum's fusional area," Perception 9, 671–682 (1980).
  24. Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

1980 (1)

P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Extended Panum's area for dynamic random dot stereograms," presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, April 30—May 5, 1978. For some problems of Panum's area see also P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Modifications of the classical notion of Panum's fusional area," Perception 9, 671–682 (1980).

1979 (2)

Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, "The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control—I. Periodic target steps," Vision Res. 19, 619–632 (1979).

1978 (4)

M. H. Clark and H. D. Crane, "Dynamic interactions in binocular vision," in Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions, J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, and R. A. Montey, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978).

D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).

A. Trehub, "Neuronal models for stereoscopic vision," J. Theor. Biol. 71, 479–486 (1978).

D. B. Diner, "Hysteresis in binocular fusion," Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1978).

1977 (3)

N. Sugie and M. Suwa, "A scheme for binocular depth perception suggested by neurophysiological evidence," Biol. Cybernetics 26, 1–15 (1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "A theory of human stereo vision," Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 451 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Theory of human stereopsis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1400 (A) (1977).

1976 (3)

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," Science 194, 283–287 (1976).

J. E. W. Mayhew and J. P. Frisby, "Rivalrous texture stereograms," Nature (London) 264, 53–56 (1976).

Y. Hirai and K. Fukushima, "An inference upon the neural network finding binocular correspondence," Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J59-D, 133–140 (1976).

1975 (2)

J. I. Nelson, "Globality and stereoscopic fusion in binocular vision," J. Theor. Biol. 49, 1–88 (1975).

P. Dev, "Perception of depth surfaces in random-dot stereograms: a neural model," Int. J. Man-Machine Stud. 7, 511–528 (1975).

1974 (1)

P. Dev, "Segmentation processes in visual perception: a cooperative neural model," COINS Tech. Rep. 74C-5 (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1974).

1970 (1)

G. Sperling, "Binocular vision: a physical and a neural theory," Am. J. Psychol. 83, 461–534 (1970).

1969 (1)

G. J. St-Cyr and D. H. Fender, "The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation," Vision Res. 9, 245 (1969).

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

B. Julesz, "Towards the automation of binocular depth perception (Automap-1)," in Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, Munich 1962, C. M. Popplewell, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963).

1960 (1)

Burt, P.

P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Extended Panum's area for dynamic random dot stereograms," presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, April 30—May 5, 1978. For some problems of Panum's area see also P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Modifications of the classical notion of Panum's fusional area," Perception 9, 671–682 (1980).

Clark, M. H.

M. H. Clark and H. D. Crane, "Dynamic interactions in binocular vision," in Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions, J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, and R. A. Montey, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978).

Crane, H. D.

M. H. Clark and H. D. Crane, "Dynamic interactions in binocular vision," in Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions, J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, and R. A. Montey, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978).

Crane, R. A.

Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

Dev, P.

P. Dev, "Perception of depth surfaces in random-dot stereograms: a neural model," Int. J. Man-Machine Stud. 7, 511–528 (1975).

P. Dev, "Segmentation processes in visual perception: a cooperative neural model," COINS Tech. Rep. 74C-5 (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1974).

Diner, D. B.

D. B. Diner, "Hysteresis in binocular fusion," Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1978).

Fender, D.

Fender, D. H.

G. J. St-Cyr and D. H. Fender, "The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation," Vision Res. 9, 245 (1969).

Frisby, J. P.

J. E. W. Mayhew and J. P. Frisby, "Rivalrous texture stereograms," Nature (London) 264, 53–56 (1976).

Fukushima, K.

Y. Hirai and K. Fukushima, "An inference upon the neural network finding binocular correspondence," Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J59-D, 133–140 (1976).

Grimson, W. E. L.

W. E. L. Grimson, From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Visual System (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1981).

Hardjowijoto, S.

Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

Hirai, Y.

Y. Hirai and K. Fukushima, "An inference upon the neural network finding binocular correspondence," Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J59-D, 133–140 (1976).

Julesz, B.

P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Extended Panum's area for dynamic random dot stereograms," presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, April 30—May 5, 1978. For some problems of Panum's area see also P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Modifications of the classical notion of Panum's fusional area," Perception 9, 671–682 (1980).

D. Fender and B. Julesz, "Extension of Panum's fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819–830 (1967).

B. Julesz, "Towards the automation of binocular depth perception (Automap-1)," in Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, Munich 1962, C. M. Popplewell, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963).

B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, (hicago, Ill., 1971).

Kowler, E.

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, "The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control—I. Periodic target steps," Vision Res. 19, 619–632 (1979).

Marr, D.

D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Theory of human stereopsis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1400 (A) (1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "A theory of human stereo vision," Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 451 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," Science 194, 283–287 (1976).

Mayhew, J. E. W.

J. E. W. Mayhew and J. P. Frisby, "Rivalrous texture stereograms," Nature (London) 264, 53–56 (1976).

Nelson, J. I.

J. I. Nelson, "Globality and stereoscopic fusion in binocular vision," J. Theor. Biol. 49, 1–88 (1975).

Niehl, E. W.

Palm, G.

D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).

Poggio, T.

D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Theory of human stereopsis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1400 (A) (1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "A theory of human stereo vision," Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 451 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," Science 194, 283–287 (1976).

Riggs, L. A.

Sperling, G.

G. Sperling, "Binocular vision: a physical and a neural theory," Am. J. Psychol. 83, 461–534 (1970).

St-Cyr, G. J.

G. J. St-Cyr and D. H. Fender, "The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation," Vision Res. 9, 245 (1969).

Steinman, R. M.

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, "The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control—I. Periodic target steps," Vision Res. 19, 619–632 (1979).

Sugie, N.

N. Sugie and M. Suwa, "A scheme for binocular depth perception suggested by neurophysiological evidence," Biol. Cybernetics 26, 1–15 (1977).

Suwa, M.

N. Sugie and M. Suwa, "A scheme for binocular depth perception suggested by neurophysiological evidence," Biol. Cybernetics 26, 1–15 (1977).

Trehub, A.

A. Trehub, "Neuronal models for stereoscopic vision," J. Theor. Biol. 71, 479–486 (1978).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

G. Sperling, "Binocular vision: a physical and a neural theory," Am. J. Psychol. 83, 461–534 (1970).

Biol. Cybernetics (2)

N. Sugie and M. Suwa, "A scheme for binocular depth perception suggested by neurophysiological evidence," Biol. Cybernetics 26, 1–15 (1977).

D. Marr, G. Palm, and T. Poggio, "Analysis of a cooperative stereo algorithm," Biol. Cybernetics 28, 223–239 (1978).

Int. J. Man-Machine Stud. (1)

P. Dev, "Perception of depth surfaces in random-dot stereograms: a neural model," Int. J. Man-Machine Stud. 7, 511–528 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Theor. Biol. (2)

J. I. Nelson, "Globality and stereoscopic fusion in binocular vision," J. Theor. Biol. 49, 1–88 (1975).

A. Trehub, "Neuronal models for stereoscopic vision," J. Theor. Biol. 71, 479–486 (1978).

Nature (1)

J. E. W. Mayhew and J. P. Frisby, "Rivalrous texture stereograms," Nature (London) 264, 53–56 (1976).

Science (1)

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," Science 194, 283–287 (1976).

Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. (1)

Y. Hirai and K. Fukushima, "An inference upon the neural network finding binocular correspondence," Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J59-D, 133–140 (1976).

Vision Res. (2)

G. J. St-Cyr and D. H. Fender, "The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation," Vision Res. 9, 245 (1969).

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, "The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control—I. Periodic target steps," Vision Res. 19, 619–632 (1979).

Other (10)

M. H. Clark and H. D. Crane, "Dynamic interactions in binocular vision," in Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions, J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, and R. A. Montey, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978).

P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Extended Panum's area for dynamic random dot stereograms," presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, April 30—May 5, 1978. For some problems of Panum's area see also P. Burt and B. Julesz, "Modifications of the classical notion of Panum's fusional area," Perception 9, 671–682 (1980).

Our attention has recently been drawn to R. A. Crane and S. Hardjowijoto, "What is normal binocular vision?" Doc. Ophthalmol. 47.1, 163–199 (1979). These authors measured the disparity between nonius lines when viewing fused random-dot stereograms through baseout prisms of varying power. They show a horizontal extension of Panum's fusional area to a maximum of about 4°. The data we present agree with this figure and adds some information on the dynamics of the fusional process.

Three of our observers seldom experienced fusion without the percept of depth. The remaining observer did have this percept, but we did not record the differential thresholds for loss of the depth percept and loss of fusion.

W. E. L. Grimson, From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Visual System (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1981).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, "A theory of human stereo vision," Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 451 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

D. B. Diner, "Hysteresis in binocular fusion," Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1978).

B. Julesz, "Towards the automation of binocular depth perception (Automap-1)," in Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, Munich 1962, C. M. Popplewell, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963).

B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, (hicago, Ill., 1971).

P. Dev, "Segmentation processes in visual perception: a cooperative neural model," COINS Tech. Rep. 74C-5 (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1974).

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