Abstract

Simultaneous masking using test and mask gratings composed of isochromatic luminance variations and isoluminant chromatic variations was studied. Masking of chromatic gratings by chromatic gratings shows less spatialfrequency specificity than does masking of luminance gratings by luminance gratings. Luminance gratings mask chromatic gratings of identical space-average luminance and chromaticity little and only when the spatial frequencies of the test and mask gratings are similar. Chromatic gratings, however, profoundly mask luminance gratings with a degree of spatial-frequency specificity akin to that of luminance—luminance masking. The insensitivity of the luminance—color masking results to the relative phase of the chromatic and luminance gratings indicates that the observed asymmetry is not due to local interactions.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  2. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29,1115–1156 (1966).
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  8. Although our "100%" contrast chromatic gratings correspond to the maximum peak-to-peak red—green differences available on our monitor, greater red—green differences could be produced by using monochromatic reference points. The CIE line corresponding to the monitor's red—green axis covers only 46% of the overlapping line connecting points at about 493 and 520 nm, respectively.
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  16. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–556 (1968).
  17. O. E. Favreau and P. Cavanagh, "Color and luminance: independent frequency shifts," Science 212, 831–832 (1981).
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  21. I. Powell, "Lenses for correcting chromatic aberration of the eye," Appl. Opt. 20, 4152–4155 (1981).

1981 (4)

O. E. Favreau and P. Cavanagh, "Color and luminance: independent frequency shifts," Science 212, 831–832 (1981).

L. G. Thorell, The Role of Color in Form Analysis, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1981).

F. S. Frome, S. L. Buck, and R. M. Boynton, "Visibility of borders: separate and combined effects of color differences, luminance contrast, and luminance level," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 145–150 (1981).

I. Powell, "Lenses for correcting chromatic aberration of the eye," Appl. Opt. 20, 4152–4155 (1981).

1980 (1)

1978 (2)

K. K. De Valois, "Interactions among spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," in Frontiers in Visual Science, S. J. Cool and E. L. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 277–285.

T. W. Butler and L. A. Riggs, "Color differences scaled by chromatic modulation sensitivity functions," Vision Res. 18, 1407–1416 (1978).

1976 (2)

O. E. Favreau, "Interference in colour-contingent motion aftereffects," Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 28, 553–560 (1976).

Watanabe et al. report that a similar low-frequency falloff for sensitivity to isoluminant color patterns appears if the spatialfrequency range tested is extended to low spatial frequencies. [A. Watanabe, H. Sakata, and H. Isono, "Chromatic spatial sine-wave response of the human visual system," NHK Lab. Note 198,1–10 (1976)].

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

S. Lu and D. H. Fender, "The interaction of color and luminance in stereoscopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 482–490 (1972).

1971 (1)

H. Levitt, "Transformed up—down methods in psychoacoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).

1969 (2)

G. J. C. van der Horst and M. A. Bouman, "Spatiotemporal chromaticity discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1482–1488 (1969).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–556 (1968).

1966 (2)

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, "Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29,1115–1156 (1966).

1957 (1)

1956 (1)

Abramov, I.

Bedford, R. E.

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Bouman, M. A.

Boynton, R. M.

Buck, S. L.

Butler, T. W.

T. W. Butler and L. A. Riggs, "Color differences scaled by chromatic modulation sensitivity functions," Vision Res. 18, 1407–1416 (1978).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–556 (1968).

Cavanagh, P.

O. E. Favreau and P. Cavanagh, "Color and luminance: independent frequency shifts," Science 212, 831–832 (1981).

Cavonius, C. R.

De Valois, K. K.

K. K. De Valois, "Interactions among spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," in Frontiers in Visual Science, S. J. Cool and E. L. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 277–285.

De Valois, R. L.

Favreau, O. E.

O. E. Favreau and P. Cavanagh, "Color and luminance: independent frequency shifts," Science 212, 831–832 (1981).

O. E. Favreau, "Interference in colour-contingent motion aftereffects," Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 28, 553–560 (1976).

Fender, D. H.

S. Lu and D. H. Fender, "The interaction of color and luminance in stereoscopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 482–490 (1972).

Foley, J. M.

Frome, F. S.

Granger, E. M.

Heurtley, J. C.

Hilz, R. L.

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29,1115–1156 (1966).

Huppmann, G.

Jacobs, G. H.

Legge, G. E.

Levitt, H.

H. Levitt, "Transformed up—down methods in psychoacoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).

Lu, S.

S. Lu and D. H. Fender, "The interaction of color and luminance in stereoscopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 482–490 (1972).

Powell, I.

Riggs, L. A.

T. W. Butler and L. A. Riggs, "Color differences scaled by chromatic modulation sensitivity functions," Vision Res. 18, 1407–1416 (1978).

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–556 (1968).

Schade, O. H.

Thorell, L. G.

L. G. Thorell, The Role of Color in Form Analysis, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1981).

van der Horst, G. J. C.

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29,1115–1156 (1966).

Wyszecki, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Lu and D. H. Fender, "The interaction of color and luminance in stereoscopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 482–490 (1972).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

H. Levitt, "Transformed up—down methods in psychoacoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29,1115–1156 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Physiol. (2)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–556 (1968).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

O. E. Favreau, "Interference in colour-contingent motion aftereffects," Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 28, 553–560 (1976).

Science (1)

O. E. Favreau and P. Cavanagh, "Color and luminance: independent frequency shifts," Science 212, 831–832 (1981).

Vision Res. (1)

T. W. Butler and L. A. Riggs, "Color differences scaled by chromatic modulation sensitivity functions," Vision Res. 18, 1407–1416 (1978).

Other (4)

Although our "100%" contrast chromatic gratings correspond to the maximum peak-to-peak red—green differences available on our monitor, greater red—green differences could be produced by using monochromatic reference points. The CIE line corresponding to the monitor's red—green axis covers only 46% of the overlapping line connecting points at about 493 and 520 nm, respectively.

K. K. De Valois, "Interactions among spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," in Frontiers in Visual Science, S. J. Cool and E. L. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 277–285.

L. G. Thorell, The Role of Color in Form Analysis, unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1981).

Watanabe et al. report that a similar low-frequency falloff for sensitivity to isoluminant color patterns appears if the spatialfrequency range tested is extended to low spatial frequencies. [A. Watanabe, H. Sakata, and H. Isono, "Chromatic spatial sine-wave response of the human visual system," NHK Lab. Note 198,1–10 (1976)].

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