Abstract

Experiments carried out over diagonal lines of sight through the entire atmosphere support the concept of spatial-coherence degradation through forward scattering as described by an aerosol modulation transfer function that strongly affects the wavelength dependence of imaging through the atmosphere. Airborne-particulate size and concentration are affected strongly by wind strength and soil moisture. Changes in weather that result in changes in average particulate size of airborne soil-derived particulates also strongly change the wavelength dependence of resolution through the atmosphere as a result of changes in the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. S. Kopeika, S. Solomon, and Y. Gencay, “The wavelength variation of visible and near-IR resolution through the atmosphere: dependence on aerosol and meteorological conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 892–901 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. M. Patterson, “Atmospheric extinction between 0.55 μ m and 10.6 μ m due to soil-derived aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2414–2418 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. M. Patterson and D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. L. Lutomirski, “Atmospheric degradation of electro-optical system performance,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3915–3921 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. T. Yura, “Small angle scattering of light by ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 10, 114–118 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ishimaru, “Limitations on image resolution imposed by a random medium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 348–351 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. E. J. McCarthy, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.
  8. N. S. Kopeika, “General wavelength dependence of imaging through the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1532–1536 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. S. Kopeika, “Spatial-frequency dependence of scattered background light: the atmospheric modulation transfer function resulting from aerosols,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 548–551 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. W. Boyd, “Wavelength dependence of seeing through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 877–890 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Gaertner, “The transmission of infrared in cloudy atmosphere,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1947).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Haccoun, “Aerosol measurements in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva) using nuclear methods,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, 1980).

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

1978 (3)

1977 (3)

1971 (1)

Boyd, R. W.

Gaertner, H.

H. Gaertner, “The transmission of infrared in cloudy atmosphere,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1947).

Gencay, Y.

Gillette, D. A.

E. M. Patterson and D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[Crossref]

Haccoun, A.

A. Haccoun, “Aerosol measurements in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva) using nuclear methods,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, 1980).

Ishimaru, A.

Kopeika, N. S.

Lutomirski, R. L.

McCarthy, E. J.

E. J. McCarthy, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, “Atmospheric extinction between 0.55 μ m and 10.6 μ m due to soil-derived aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2414–2418 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Patterson and D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[Crossref]

Solomon, S.

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

E. M. Patterson and D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Other (3)

E. J. McCarthy, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

H. Gaertner, “The transmission of infrared in cloudy atmosphere,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1947).

A. Haccoun, “Aerosol measurements in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva) using nuclear methods,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, 1980).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative normalized atmospheric MTF’s measured in the early mornings at (a) Kfar Vitkin beach (January 11, 1981) and (b) Jerusalem (January 9, 1981). RH, relative humidity; W, wind speed; T, temperature; V, visibility. Because of the logarithmic scale, a spatial frequency of 1 is equivalent to dc.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative scattering cross section as a function of wavelength with particulate size as a parameter (from Gaertner7,11).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative normalized atmospheric MTF’s measured (a) in the early morning and (b) at midday in Beer-Sheva on January 7, 1981. Symbols as in Fig. 1.

Equations (4)

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M a ( f r λ ) = exp ( - A a z ) exp [ - ( f r / f c ) 2 S a z ] , f r < f c = exp ( - α z ) , f r f c ,
f c = a / ( λ f l ) ,
α = S a + A a .
S a λ - n ,