Abstract

The electroretinogram (ERG) can be used to evaluate retinal processes. Electrophysiologic studies of lower-order species indicate that important color-vision coding occurs in the outer plexiform layer. In the monkey, a color-opponent R-G-cone difference signal has been reported in the intraretinally recorded foveal local ERG. We have searched for a similar signal in the corneal ERG. Steady-state ERG waveforms were elicited with long-wavelength, sinusoidally flickering stimuli that subtended either 45 or 17°. Waveform analyses reveal two primary components that are differentially affected by changes in illuminance, temporal frequency, and chromatic adaptation. Similarities between the foveal local ERG and corneal ERG data with regard to amplitude and phase indicate that one of these corneal ERG components is the R-G-cone difference signal. Our findings raise the possibility that the integrity of the outer plexiform layer can be monitored by means of the corneally recorded ERG and that distal-retinal color-cod ng phenomena can be studied in man.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Ingling, Jr., "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels," Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).
  2. R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979), pp. 207–229.
  3. D. van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).
  4. W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1442–1448 (1980).
  5. W. S. Baron, "R-G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).
  6. W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).
  7. W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. 246, 311–331 (1975).
  8. D. van Norren and P. Padmos, "Human and macaque blue cones studied with electroretinography," Vision Res. 13, 1241–1254 (1973).
  9. J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 339–379.
  10. M. Korth and S. Sokol, "Electroretinographic and psychophysical measures of cone spectral mechanisms using the two-color threshold technique," Vision Res. 20, 205–212 (1980).
  11. L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, "Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Sec. VII/4.
  12. L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, "Electrical responses of the human eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621–1627 (1966).
  13. A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).
  14. L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, "A comparison of electrical and psychophysical determinations of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
  15. E. D. Adrian, "The electrical response of the human eye," J. Physiol. 104, 84–104 (1945).
  16. R. L. DeValois, "Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of primate vision," in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, pp. 137–178.
  17. R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).
  18. R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).
  19. A. Monjan, "Chromatic adaptation in the macaque," J. Comp. Physiol. 62, 76–83 (1966).
  20. H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
  21. W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).
  22. G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6,669–682 (1966).
  23. W. S. Baron, "Chromatic adaptation and flicker-frequency effects on primate R-G-cone difference signal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1008–1013 (1982).
  24. D. Barber, D. J. Cotterill, and J. R. Larke, "A new contact lens electrode," in Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series, T. Lawwill, ed. (Dr. W. Junk bv, The Hague, 1977), Vol. 13, pp. 385–392.
  25. W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).
  26. W. S. Baron, "Electroretinogram a-wave slope as a measure of response amplitude," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 296–298 (1982).
  27. J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1982 (2)

1981 (2)

W. S. Baron, "R-G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

1980 (2)

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1442–1448 (1980).

M. Korth and S. Sokol, "Electroretinographic and psychophysical measures of cone spectral mechanisms using the two-color threshold technique," Vision Res. 20, 205–212 (1980).

1979 (1)

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

1977 (2)

C. R. Ingling, Jr., "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels," Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).

D. van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

1975 (1)

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. 246, 311–331 (1975).

1974 (3)

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).

1973 (2)

D. van Norren and P. Padmos, "Human and macaque blue cones studied with electroretinography," Vision Res. 13, 1241–1254 (1973).

W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).

1971 (2)

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1966 (3)

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6,669–682 (1966).

A. Monjan, "Chromatic adaptation in the macaque," J. Comp. Physiol. 62, 76–83 (1966).

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, "Electrical responses of the human eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621–1627 (1966).

1949 (1)

1945 (1)

E. D. Adrian, "The electrical response of the human eye," J. Physiol. 104, 84–104 (1945).

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian, "The electrical response of the human eye," J. Physiol. 104, 84–104 (1945).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 339–379.

Barber, D.

D. Barber, D. J. Cotterill, and J. R. Larke, "A new contact lens electrode," in Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series, T. Lawwill, ed. (Dr. W. Junk bv, The Hague, 1977), Vol. 13, pp. 385–392.

Baron, W. S.

W. S. Baron, "Electroretinogram a-wave slope as a measure of response amplitude," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 296–298 (1982).

W. S. Baron, "Chromatic adaptation and flicker-frequency effects on primate R-G-cone difference signal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1008–1013 (1982).

W. S. Baron, "R-G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1442–1448 (1980).

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

D. van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. 246, 311–331 (1975).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).

Berry, R. N.

Boynton, R. M.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. 246, 311–331 (1975).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979), pp. 207–229.

Cotterill, D. J.

D. Barber, D. J. Cotterill, and J. R. Larke, "A new contact lens electrode," in Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series, T. Lawwill, ed. (Dr. W. Junk bv, The Hague, 1977), Vol. 13, pp. 385–392.

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, "Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of primate vision," in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, pp. 137–178.

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

Harwerth, R. S.

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Hull, E. M.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

Ingling, Jr., C. R.

C. R. Ingling, Jr., "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels," Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).

Johnson, E. P.

Korth, M.

M. Korth and S. Sokol, "Electroretinographic and psychophysical measures of cone spectral mechanisms using the two-color threshold technique," Vision Res. 20, 205–212 (1980).

Larke, J. R.

D. Barber, D. J. Cotterill, and J. R. Larke, "A new contact lens electrode," in Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series, T. Lawwill, ed. (Dr. W. Junk bv, The Hague, 1977), Vol. 13, pp. 385–392.

Maffei, L.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

Mead, W. R.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

Monjan, A.

A. Monjan, "Chromatic adaptation in the macaque," J. Comp. Physiol. 62, 76–83 (1966).

Morgan, H. C.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).

Padmos, P.

D. van Norren and P. Padmos, "Human and macaque blue cones studied with electroretinography," Vision Res. 13, 1241–1254 (1973).

Pirchio, M.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

Polson, M. C.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

Porciatti, V.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

Riggs, L. A.

Schick, A. M. L.

Snodderly, D. M.

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).

Sokol, S.

M. Korth and S. Sokol, "Electroretinographic and psychophysical measures of cone spectral mechanisms using the two-color threshold technique," Vision Res. 20, 205–212 (1980).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Spinelli, D.

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

van Norren, D.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

D. van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

D. van Norren and P. Padmos, "Human and macaque blue cones studied with electroretinography," Vision Res. 13, 1241–1254 (1973).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Wayner, M. A.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6,669–682 (1966).

Wooten, B. R.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, "Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Sec. VII/4.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1442–1448 (1980).

A. Fiorentini, L. Maffei, M. Pirchio, D. Spinelli, and V. Porciatti, "The ERG in response to alternating gratings in patients with diseases of the peripheral visual pathway," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 490–493 (1981).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

W. S. Baron, "R-G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

J. Comp. Physiol. (1)

A. Monjan, "Chromatic adaptation in the macaque," J. Comp. Physiol. 62, 76–83 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (2)

E. D. Adrian, "The electrical response of the human eye," J. Physiol. 104, 84–104 (1945).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. 246, 311–331 (1975).

Science (1)

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Red-green cone interactions in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Vision Res. (10)

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6,669–682 (1966).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, M. C. Polson, W. R. Mead, and E. M. Hull, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests," Vision Res. 14, 53–68 (1974).

R. L. DeValois, H. C. Morgan, and D. M. Snodderly, "Psychophysical studies of monkey vision—III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers," Vision Res. 14, 75–82 (1974).

D. van Norren and P. Padmos, "Human and macaque blue cones studied with electroretinography," Vision Res. 13, 1241–1254 (1973).

M. Korth and S. Sokol, "Electroretinographic and psychophysical measures of cone spectral mechanisms using the two-color threshold technique," Vision Res. 20, 205–212 (1980).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

C. R. Ingling, Jr., "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels," Vision Res. 17, 1083–1089 (1977).

D. van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Other (5)

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979), pp. 207–229.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, "Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Sec. VII/4.

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 339–379.

R. L. DeValois, "Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of primate vision," in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, pp. 137–178.

D. Barber, D. J. Cotterill, and J. R. Larke, "A new contact lens electrode," in Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series, T. Lawwill, ed. (Dr. W. Junk bv, The Hague, 1977), Vol. 13, pp. 385–392.

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