Abstract

I recently reported on a negative component in the foveal local electroretinogram (LERG) of the primate that is dependent on the sensitivity differences between the R and G cones. This R—G-cone difference signal is most readily resolved in the foveal LERG in response to low-frequency sinusoidally flickering stimuli. In this paper, I report on changes in the R—G-cone difference signal (elicited with a 670-nm test stimulus) that are induced by 670- and 470-nm chromatic adaptation and flicker frequency. Both long- and short-wavelength backgrounds reduce the cone difference signal, but the long-wavelength reduction is associated with a phase shift that is absent with short-wavelength adaptation. Following extinction of the long-wavelength background, the R—G-cone difference signal is initially absent and increases in amplitude and phase for 5 min. In contrast, following extinction of a short-wavelength background that is about equally effective on the R cones, the cone difference signal is always present and at f ll amplitude. The R—G-cone difference signal has a low-pass frequency response that falls off at a higher frequency and more abruptly than the accompanying positive component.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. For a review, see R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979).
  2. For a review, see P. Gouras, "S-potentials," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2, M. G. F. Fuortes, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).
  3. M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Colour dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 234, 199–216 (1973).
  4. E. J. Simon, "Feedback loop between cones and horizontal cells in the turtle retina," Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33, 1078–1082 (1974).
  5. W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1441–1448 (1980).
  6. K. T. Brown, "The electroretinogram: its components and their origins," Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).
  7. W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).
  8. W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).
  9. R. M. Boynton and J. Gordon, "Bezold—Brucke hue shift measured by color-naming technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 78–86 (1965).
  10. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, "Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. I. Chromatic responses and spectral saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546–552 (1955).
  11. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The liminal brightness increment as a function of wave-length for different conditions of the foveal and parafoveal retina," Proc. R. Soc. London B53, 496–530 (1933).
  12. H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Evidence for red—green cone interaction in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
  13. D. Van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).
  14. W. S. Baron, "R—G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).
  15. W. J. Donovan and W. S. Baron, "Identification of the R—G-cone difference signal in the corneal electroretinogram of primate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1014–1020 (1982).
  16. W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).
  17. G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  18. Human data are used for this absorption analysis because of their accuracy. However, small differences probably exist between the photolabile-pigment action spectra of cynomolgus macaque and man. As was mentioned in the introduction, the R—G opponent-color-signal neutral point is shifted by about 15 nm between species. In addition, R. M. Boynton and I19 have observed that the monkey's R-cone long-wavelength-field sensitivity function is best fitted by shifting the R primary function about 6 nm to longer wavelengths, and microspectrophotometry of Macaca fascicularis cones supports this observations.20 If the shapes of the primaries were constant, but if the R primary were shifted 6 nm to longer wavelengths, the relative R-to-G and G-to-R absorption factors used in this paper would increase by about 30%.
  19. R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Field sensitivity of the 'red' mechanism derived from the primate local electroretinogram," Vision Res. (to be published).
  20. J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).
  21. J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
  22. Short-wavelength-sensitive (B) cones are not likely to be involved in these phenomena. The B cones are essentially insensitive to wavelengths above about 500 nm, but effects between those observed at 670- and 470-nm adaptation are obtained when neutral-wavelength adaptation, e.g., about 565 nm, is used.
  23. W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. London 246, 311–331 (1975).
  24. W. S. Baron and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).
  25. D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
  26. M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 240, 177–198 (1974).

1982

1981

W. S. Baron, "R—G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

1980

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1441–1448 (1980).

1979

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).

W. S. Baron and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

1977

D. Van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).

1975

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. London 246, 311–331 (1975).

1974

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 240, 177–198 (1974).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

E. J. Simon, "Feedback loop between cones and horizontal cells in the turtle retina," Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33, 1078–1082 (1974).

1973

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Colour dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 234, 199–216 (1973).

W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).

1971

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Evidence for red—green cone interaction in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1968

K. T. Brown, "The electroretinogram: its components and their origins," Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).

1966

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

1965

1955

1933

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The liminal brightness increment as a function of wave-length for different conditions of the foveal and parafoveal retina," Proc. R. Soc. London B53, 496–530 (1933).

Baron, W. S.

W. J. Donovan and W. S. Baron, "Identification of the R—G-cone difference signal in the corneal electroretinogram of primate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1014–1020 (1982).

W. S. Baron, "R—G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1441–1448 (1980).

W. S. Baron and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).

D. Van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. London 246, 311–331 (1975).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

W. S. Baron, "Maxwellian view stimulator for electrophysiological or psychophysical work," Appl. Opt. 12, 2560–2562 (1973).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Field sensitivity of the 'red' mechanism derived from the primate local electroretinogram," Vision Res. (to be published).

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Boynton, R. M.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. London 246, 311–331 (1975).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

R. M. Boynton and J. Gordon, "Bezold—Brucke hue shift measured by color-naming technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 78–86 (1965).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Field sensitivity of the 'red' mechanism derived from the primate local electroretinogram," Vision Res. (to be published).

For a review, see R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown, "The electroretinogram: its components and their origins," Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The liminal brightness increment as a function of wave-length for different conditions of the foveal and parafoveal retina," Proc. R. Soc. London B53, 496–530 (1933).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Donovan, W. J.

Fuortes, M. G. F.

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 240, 177–198 (1974).

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Colour dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 234, 199–216 (1973).

Gordon, J.

Gouras, P.

For a review, see P. Gouras, "S-potentials," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2, M. G. F. Fuortes, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).

Hammon, R. W.

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).

Harwerth, R. S.

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Evidence for red—green cone interaction in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

Kelly, D. H.

Mollon, J. D.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Simon, E. J.

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 240, 177–198 (1974).

E. J. Simon, "Feedback loop between cones and horizontal cells in the turtle retina," Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33, 1078–1082 (1974).

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Colour dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 234, 199–216 (1973).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Evidence for red—green cone interaction in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The liminal brightness increment as a function of wave-length for different conditions of the foveal and parafoveal retina," Proc. R. Soc. London B53, 496–530 (1933).

van Norren, D.

W. S. Baron and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

D. Van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Appl. Opt.

Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.

E. J. Simon, "Feedback loop between cones and horizontal cells in the turtle retina," Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33, 1078–1082 (1974).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

W. S. Baron, "Cone difference signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19, 1441–1448 (1980).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl.

W. S. Baron, "R—G opponent color signal in foveal local electroretinogram of primate," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 20, 53 (1981).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, "Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptors in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis," J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

J. Physiol. London

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. London 246, 311–331 (1975).

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 240, 177–198 (1974).

M. G. F. Fuortes and E. J. Simon, "Colour dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina," J. Physiol. London 234, 199–216 (1973).

Proc. R. Soc. London

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The liminal brightness increment as a function of wave-length for different conditions of the foveal and parafoveal retina," Proc. R. Soc. London B53, 496–530 (1933).

Science

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, "Evidence for red—green cone interaction in the increment threshold spectral sensitivity of primates," Science 172, 180–184 (1971).

Vision Res.

D. Van Norren and W. S. Baron, "Increment spectral sensitivities of the primate late receptor potential and b-wave," Vision Res. 17, 807–810 (1977).

W. S. Baron and D. van Norren, "Primate cone sensitivity to flicker during light and dark adaptation as indicated by the foveal local electroretinogram," Vision Res. 19, 109–116 (1979).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

K. T. Brown, "The electroretinogram: its components and their origins," Vision Res. 8, 633–677 (1968).

W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "The primate foveal local electroretinogram: an indicator of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 14, 495–501 (1974).

W. S. Baron, R. M. Boynton, and R. W. Hammon, "Component analysis of the foveal local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker," Vision Res. 19, 479–490 (1979).

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Other

Human data are used for this absorption analysis because of their accuracy. However, small differences probably exist between the photolabile-pigment action spectra of cynomolgus macaque and man. As was mentioned in the introduction, the R—G opponent-color-signal neutral point is shifted by about 15 nm between species. In addition, R. M. Boynton and I19 have observed that the monkey's R-cone long-wavelength-field sensitivity function is best fitted by shifting the R primary function about 6 nm to longer wavelengths, and microspectrophotometry of Macaca fascicularis cones supports this observations.20 If the shapes of the primaries were constant, but if the R primary were shifted 6 nm to longer wavelengths, the relative R-to-G and G-to-R absorption factors used in this paper would increase by about 30%.

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Field sensitivity of the 'red' mechanism derived from the primate local electroretinogram," Vision Res. (to be published).

Short-wavelength-sensitive (B) cones are not likely to be involved in these phenomena. The B cones are essentially insensitive to wavelengths above about 500 nm, but effects between those observed at 670- and 470-nm adaptation are obtained when neutral-wavelength adaptation, e.g., about 565 nm, is used.

For a review, see R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979).

For a review, see P. Gouras, "S-potentials," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2, M. G. F. Fuortes, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).

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